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Article

Angelina Petrova

(b Pazardzhik, Bulgaria, Oct 27, 1952). Bulgarian composer, pianist, harpsichord player, and pedagogue. He graduated in piano (under Prof. Sturshenov) in 1977 and in composition under Prof. Hadzhiev. He continued with postgraduate studies under Yvonne Lefébure, Zuzana Růžičková (1983), and Milan Schlechta (...

Article

Hugh Davies

Electronic keyboard instrument (not a piano) developed by Lee de Forest (b Council Bluffs, IA, 26 Aug 1873; d Hollywood, CA, 30 June 1961) in New York from 1915. De Forest introduced his Audion triode valve (vacuum tube) in 1906. A more sensitive development of John A. Fleming’s diode valve, it was to prove a major step in the development of electronics, especially radio. About ...

Article

Laurence Libin

The name given by Claude-Félix Seytre of Lyons to a piano- or organ-playing device activated by a perforated strip or disc, patented by Seytre on 24 Jan 1842; it was directly inspired by the Jacquard loom apparatus.

M.P. Hamel: Nouveau manuel complete du facteur d’orgues...

Article

Hugh Davies

An Electronic organ, several models of which were manufactured between 1951 and the mid-1950s by Apparatewerk Bayern (AWB) in Dachau. The first model was the entertainment organ Polychord III, designed by Harald Bode. It had two five-octave manuals and a 30-note pedalboard. The sounds were produced by an oscillator for each note, and a second system of 12 oscillators, using frequency division, supplied some of the timbres. The Polychord III was one of the first electronic organs manufactured in Germany after World War II; many of its principles were continued in later models of the AWB organ. After Bode left the company at the end of ...

Article

Ax  

Laurence Libin

In the argot of American popular music, a term for any instrument. The word particularly denotes wind and string types common in bands, such as saxophones and electric guitars; it is less often applied to keyboards and drum sets. Of uncertain origin but widespread by the 1950s, this usage apparently emerged in the early 20th century, perhaps in connection with the colloquial terms ‘woodshedding’ (laborious practicing or performing) and ‘chops’ (a wind player’s jaws, mouth, or embouchure, and by extension, any instrumentalist’s technical ability), as in ‘He’s woodshedding with his ax to improve his chops’. ‘Cutting contests’ (performance competitions) between early New Orleans jazz players naturally involved their axes. Such rustic terminology implies effortful, demonstrative physical work, like chopping wood with an ax....

Article

See Liszt, Franz

Article

A disposition used on many early 20th-century harpsichords (and thus specified in some 20th-century compositions) in imitation of the so-called Bach harpsichord.

Article

Martin Elste

A two-manual instrument made after 1700 by the workshop of Harrass in Breitenbach, Thuringia. It was owned by the Voss family of Berlin at the end of the 18th century. The instrument then passed into the hands of the family of the Bach scholar Wilhelm Rust, and in ...

Article

Martin Elste

A keyboard instrument of the harpsichord type designed and built by the Munich instrument-making firm of Maendler-Schramm in the 1920s. Its mechanism was designed to allow dynamic gradation: a pad was fitted diagonally between the back key lever and the adjustable screw of a specially sprung jack, so that the length of the plectrum could be regulated by touch (patented ...

Article

A lever in an organ's key action or coupler mechanism, which transfers the key action to the vertical tracker or sticker, which in turn causes the pallet in the wind-chest to open. For illustrations see Organ, figs. .

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A lever in a carillon's mechanism.

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See Stravinsky, Igor

Article

Hans Klotz

German family of organ builders. Daniel Bader (b ?Münster, ?c1560; d ?1638) might have been a pupil of Arendt Lampeler (who worked in Münster from 1573 to 1579 and from 1585 to 1588). Bader moved to Arnsberg in Westphalia in 1595...

Article

A form of mechanical (or tracker) action used in organ construction since the 17th century, in which the key-shanks are pivoted near their centres, the upwards motion of the rear end of the keys being transmitted to open the pallet by an action in which pairs of squares or at least one backfall are essential. ...

Article

Hugh Davies

An electronic organ, many models of which were manufactured by the Baldwin Piano & Organ Co. in the United States beginning in 1946. The original models were designed by Dr. Winston E. Kock (1909–82), the company’s director of electronic research from 1936. Baldwin organs normally have two manuals and pedals; the earlier models were mostly church, cinema, and concert organs, but the company has subsequently manufactured a wide range of instruments, including many for home use, especially “spinet” organs in which two shorter manuals are staggered by one octave. Advances in electronic technology around ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

Spanish family of organ builders. José Ballesteros y Latuente (bc1710; d ?Valladolid, after 1763) established himself at Valladolid and restored the organs at Mucientes (1730), Villaverde de Medina (1755) and S María de Torrelobatón (1762–3); he also offered his services for instruments at Villabáñez (...

Article

Durward R. Center and Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

A mechanical organ (known as “fairground organ” in Europe) used to provide music for merry-go-rounds and in amusement parks, circuses, and skating rinks in Europe and the United States. The instrument originated in Europe as an outdoor version of the Orchestrion, voiced to sound above the hurly-burly of the fairground. Initially it was put near the entrance in order to attract attention. It was usually built in an elaborately carved and colorfully painted case which sometimes incorporated moving figures in its façade. All but the very largest instruments were designed to be portable, robust enough to travel around the country on rough roads. With the coming of bioscope (moving picture) theatres, the organ sometimes became the front of the show-tent, its façade incorporating entry and exit doors....

Article

Barbara Owen

American firm of organ builders. Carl Barckhoff (b Wiedenbrück, Westphalia, Germany, 1849; d Basic, VA, April 16, 1919) was trained as an organ builder in Germany, presumably by his father, Felix (d 1878), and emigrated with his father and brother Lorenz to the USA, where they established a family firm, Felix Barckhoff & Sons, in Philadelphia about ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

Reviser Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

A mechanical instrument in which the musical programme is represented by projections on the surface of a slowly rotating barrel or cylinder.

In its common form, the barrel organ comprises a small pipe-organ offering 14 notes or more in a non-chromatic scale and represented on between one and four stops or registers controlled by drawstops. To save pipes and space as well as expense, tunes were frequently pinned in only two or three keys, G and D being usual. The music is provided by a pinned wooden barrel arranged horizontally within the organ case and rotated by a worm gear on a cross-shaft extending outside the case and terminating in a crankhandle. This cross-shaft also carries one or (more usually) two offset bearings like a crankshaft and to these are attached reciprocators which pass to the lower part of the organ where a simple air bellows and reservoir is provided. Turning the crankhandle thus fulfils two purposes: it pumps wind into the organ chest and it turns the barrel. As the barrel is rotated, its circumference passes beneath a simple frame containing pivoted metal levers or ‘keys’. These keys engage with the barrel pins and are lifted by them. The lifting motion causes the rear end of the key to be depressed, pushing down a slender wooden sticker which enters the wind-chest and controls the pallet to allow wind from the bellows reservoir to enter a particular pipe and produce a sound. In all respects, other than the replacement of a manual keyboard by the mechanical keyframe and the barrel, the barrel organ mechanism is merely a simplification of the conventional pipe organ. Besides pipework, some instruments also included percussion in the form of a drum with two beaters, and a triangle. Rarely, an abbreviated octave of bells would also be added. The mechanism is one of simplicity and extreme effectiveness. That some instruments are still in playing order after 150 or 200 years, with little or no repair work or restoration, is evidence of the practical design and durability of the basic organ component assemblies. The mechanism of the barrel organ is illustrated in ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill and Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

Mechanical instrument in which the musical programme is represented by projections on the surface of a slowly rotating barrel or cylinder. In its common form, the barrel organ comprises a small pipe organ offering 14 notes or more in a non-chromatic scale and one to four stops or registers controlled by drawstops. To save space and expense, tunes were frequently pinned in only two or three keys, G and D being usual. The music is provided by a pinned wooden barrel arranged horizontally within the organ case and rotated by a worm gear on a cross-shaft extending outside the case and terminating in a crank handle. This cross-shaft also carries one or (usually) two offset bearings like a crankshaft and to these are attached reciprocators that pass to the lower part of the case where a simple bellows and reservoir is provided. Turning the crank pumps wind into the windchest and turns the barrel. As the barrel rotates, its circumference passes beneath a frame containing pivoted levers or ‘keys’. These keys engage with the barrel pins and are lifted by them. The lifting motion causes the rear end of the key to be depressed, pushing down a slender wooden sticker which enters the windchest and controls the pallet to allow wind from the reservoir to enter a particular pipe. In all respects, other than the replacement of a manual keyboard by the mechanical keyframe and the barrel, the barrel organ mechanism is merely a simplification of the conventional mechanical-action pipe organ. Besides pipework, some instruments also include percussion in the form of a drum with two beaters, and a triangle. Rarely, an abbreviated octave of bells is added. That some instruments remain in playing order after 150 or 200 years, with little or no repair work, demonstrates the practical design and durability of the basic organ components....