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Article

Peter Williams and Martin Renshaw

A keyboard played by the feet, chiefly to be found in organs, but also in carillons, harpsichords, clavichords and pianos. It can be connected either to its own pipes (bells, strings) or to the manual keyboard(s) of the same instrument. Early types are for playing with the toes: short sticks protruding from the lower case-front either as simple strips of wood (Halberstadt, ...

Article

Peter Williams

A quasi-Latin term derived from pedalis (a part ‘for the feet’) to indicate that a piece of organ music so labelled is played by both hands and feet. The word appears to have arisen as an antithesis to Manualiter and was so used by Schlick (...

Article

David Rowland

The art of using the tone-modifying devices operated on the modern piano by pedals. In the earlier history of the instrument similar, and other, devices were operated by hand stops, knee levers or pedals. The mechanisms of these devices are described in Pianoforte, §I, and in articles on individual stops and pedals....

Article

A kind of staccato bowing. See Bow, §II, 2(iv) .

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Picada  

A kind of staccato bowing. See Bow, §II, 2(iv) .

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

A term used by François Couperin (Troisième livre de pièces de clavecin, 1722) and revived by modern writers to designate a harpsichord piece in which two parts, one for each hand, cross and re-cross one another in the same range, often sounding the same note simultaneously. Such pieces must be performed on a two-manual harpsichord with independent unison registers, one for each manual. The first such instruments seem to have been made in France in the 1640s, and two ...

Article

Pieno  

Full, as in organo pieno ( Full organ), coro pieno (full choir), and a voce piena (with full voice).

Article

A type of mordent. See Ornaments, §7 .

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Term for any device, mechanism, or means by which a player controls an instrument. It embraces keys and keyboards, valves, mouthpieces, bows, plectra, beaters, ribbon controllers, joysticks, touchscreens, other computer input devices and displays running control software, and any other intermediary between player and instrument (real or virtual) giving the player control of the sound-producing elements....

Article

Brandon Smith and Anne Beetem Acker

On an electronic instrument, an expressive MIDI characteristic or data type (in the form: channel, note number, pressure) that transmits the key pressure for individual keys, and therefore separately for each note played, even when several are played simultaneously. This allows the performer to play different notes simultaneously at different loudness levels or with other effects, such as adding vibrato or triggering a filter. As with the more common monophonic MIDI data type (which averages the pressure for different keys pressed simultaneously, as if all were played with the same pressure), the pressure value is transmitted when the performer strikes a key while it is depressed, allowing the tone to change while a note is held....

Article

Greer Garden

In Baroque vocal and instrumental music, an appoggiatura, particularly one that resolves upwards by a tone or semitone. Deriving from late 16th-century Italian improvisatory practice – Bovicelli's Regole, passaggi di musica, madrigali et motetti passeggiati (1594/R) contains written-out examples – it became one of the most important graces of French Baroque music. In France it was rarely printed before the late 17th century, but was left to the performer to add extempore. Bacilly explained in his ...

Article

Portato  

A type of bowstroke. See Bow, §II, 3 .

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Pousser  

In string playing, up-bow. See Bow, §II .

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A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §8 .

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A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §8 .

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Primo  

In piano duets, the part for the player seated on the right and playing the upper parts of the piece.

Article

James W. McKinnon

The term appears in a number of medieval texts, where it means simply a ‘player of the organ’. Some 20th-century writers on the organ, however, have explained the word ‘pulsator’ by claiming that the cumbersome keys of the medieval organ could be depressed only by a blow of the fist....

Article

Puntato  

Sometimes puntato means that notes are to be played staccato when indicated by ‘points’ (dots) above or below the notes in question. Puntato may also be used for ‘dotted’ notes in the sense of a dotted quaver (generally followed by a semiquaver). See also Piquer...

Article

James Tyler

The modern term for the technique of plucking the strings of a guitar with the fingertips or nails of the right hand. Historically, the manner of playing derives from lute technique, and was used by baroque guitarists in conjunction with strumming technique ( see Rasgueado...

Article

Quiebro  

A type of ornament, variously a trill or a mordent. See Ornaments, §2 .