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(b Valenciennes, Oct 7, 1748; d ?Paris, 1816 or 1818). French composer and violinist. He went to Paris at the age of 12 (according to Choron), where he studied composition with Philidor and the violin with André-Noël Pagin. At his début at the Concert Spirituel on ...

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Mary Cyr

(b Bordeaux, May 2, 1707; d Paris, June 6, 1747). French composer and cellist. He probably lived in Bordeaux since at his death he was cited as a ‘négociant de la ville de Bordeaux’, and after his death a privilege was granted to a ‘S...

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Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Sept 1, 1767; d Tottenhill, Norfolk, Dec 5, 1859). English composer and singer, daughter of François-Hippolyte and Maria Barthélemon. She went with her parents on their continental tour (1776–7) and sang before the King of Naples and Marie Antoinette. She repeated the scena which she had performed for them at her mother’s benefit concert in London in ...

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Neal Zaslaw and Simon McVeigh

(b Bordeaux, July 27, 1741; d Christ Church, Surrey, July 20, 1808). French violinist and composer. He was the oldest of 16 children of the wig-maker Emmanuel Barthélemon and Françoise Laroche. Accounts of his career as a military officer may be apocryphal. He may have studied in Paris, where in ...

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Robert Toft

(b Westminster, London, Sept 19, 1769; d London, April 15, 1821). English bass. Educated under Benjamin Cooke (ii) at Westminster Abbey, he became the leading bass of his generation. In 1788, his name first appears as a chorister at the Concert of Ancient Music, but in ...

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Owain Edwards

(b Lancs., c1755; d London, Dec 11, 1811). English singer, wife of Joah Bates. She came from a poor family and worked in a factory in Halifax. As a girl she sang in choirs, and in 1772 was in the contingent of singers from the north at the Gloucester Music Meeting. She had the good fortune when singing at Halifax to attract the attention of Dr Howard of Leicester who is said to have introduced her to John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. She was able to devote herself to music in London, studying with Lord Sandwich’s private secretary Joah Bates, whom in ...

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Ellwood Derr

(b Elbogen [now Loket], Bohemia, June 17, 1725; d ?Würzburg, Aug 30, 1808). Bohemian composer, trumpeter and keyboard player. He received his earliest trumpet tuition from his father, a tailor and town musician, and at the age of 23 he became court trumpeter to the Bishop of Augsburg. After further study, and after an impressive performance at the archbishop's court in Würzburg, he was appointed court trumpeter with a handsome salary; he also gained a reputation there as a good keyboard teacher. Bauer was only a dilettante composer. His published works, which appeared between ...

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Gunter Hempel

(b Gotha, bap. Sept 12, 1753; d Leipzig, Nov 30, 1813). German composer and writer on music. Between 1777 and 1789 he was intermittently active in the Hamburg theatre, first as a singer and later as a violinist and music director. He also visited St Petersburg (...

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(b Lübeck, c1740; d London, 1824). German composer, violinist and organist, active in England. He had organ lessons with J.P. Kunzen at Lübeck before he settled in London, at about the age of 18, as organist of the Lutheran Chapel in the Savoy. In addition to serving as an organist, he worked as a teacher, composer and violinist. The imputation made by Haydn, who heard him in London in ...

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Philip H. Peter

(b c1729; d London, Aug 3, 1798). English bassoonist and teacher, probably of German birth. He was in England at least as early as 1750, when he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians. In 1754 and 1758 he took part in the Foundling Hospital performances of ...

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(b Augsburg, 1723; d Eichstätt, May 18, 1782). German cellist and composer. The son of a flautist at the Augsburg court, he worked in the service of the prince-bishop and at the seminary of St Moritz in Augsburg (1742 and 1749). After the prince’s death in ...

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(b Marcei, Orne, 1746; d Aubevoye, Eure, March 19, 1825). French pianist and composer. She published six keyboard sonatas, three with violin accompaniment (1769); a two-act opéra comique, Fleur d’épine (1776); an arrangement of the overture; and airs and ...

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Rudolph Angermüller and Philip E.J. Robinson

(b Paris, Jan 24, 1732; d Paris, May 18, 1799). French writer. The son of a clockmaker, he defended his invention of a watch escapement mechanism against theft by the royal clockmaker Lepaute, whom he replaced at court in 1755. He subsequently became harp teacher to the daughters of Louis XV and, thanks to contact with the ...

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(b Paris, 30 or Aug 31, 1748; d Paris, 1813). French singer and composer. Having specialized from the age of seven in soubrette roles in comedies, she made a successful début at the Paris Opéra on 27 November 1766, replacing Sophie Arnould in the title role of ...

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Anneliese Downs and Philippe Vendrix

(b Mannheim, Feb 20, 1734; d Bordeaux, Dec 31, 1809). German composer, conductor, violinist and organist, active in France. He received violin lessons from his father Johann Aloys Beck (d 27 May 1742), an oboist and choir school Rektor at the Palatine court whose name is listed in the calendars of ...

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Married name of the singer Wilhelmine Ambrosch, daughter of Joseph Karl Ambrosch.

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(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (...

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Dennis Libby

(b ?Fossombrone, c1745; d after 1795). Italian soprano castrato. His career began intermittently in comic opera at Pesaro (1762) and Rome (1764), and as secondo uomo in opera seria at Venice (1768). In 1770–71 he was secondo uomo in five Italian houses and then entered the service of the Munich court, resuming his career in Italy in ...

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Adolf Layer and Fiona Little

(b Wimpfen-im-Tal, Oct 28, 1733; d Wallerstein, Jan 2, 1803). German composer and pianist. He served as a military officer early in the Seven Years War, joining the Zollern Dragoons of the Bavarian Electorate in 1756 and, according to his own account, going on campaigns with Field Marshall Joseph Friedrich, Prince of Sachsen-Hildburghausen, who was also Dittersdorf’s patron. Late in ...

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(b Grünwald, [now Pastviny], May 18, 1744; d Berlin, Oct 28, 1812). Bohemian clarinettist and composer. After moving to Paris at the age of 16 he was employed as a clarinettist by the Duke of Orléans (1767–77) and by the Prince of Lambesc (...