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Short-necked bowed lute of Abkhazia. The pear-shaped body with arched back extends into an unfretted neck surmounted by a flat circular pegdisk. Two gut strings are affixed to a short tailpiece, cross a tall bridge below a small circular soundhole, and are tuned a 5th apart by pegs inserted from the back. The instrument’s total length is about 70 to 80 cm. It is held vertically with the body between the knees, and bowed with a high-arched bow, its hair tightened by the fingers of the bowing hand. It is played mostly by men to accompany epic, ceremonial, and domestic songs, and to perform dance tunes....

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Alexander Michael Cannon

Cambodian music ensemble. Named for the female celestial figures that adorn Angkor Wat, this music and dance ensemble has featured performances of Cambodian music for audiences in the United States since 1986. Dr. Sam-Ang Sam—a master musician who studied with court and village master musicians in Siem Reap and Phnom Penh and who was named a ...

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Arababu  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Mayco A. Santaella

Indonesian spike fiddle. It is also known as rababo in Bolaang Mongondow (North Sulawesi), as alababu in Gorontalo, as arababoe in Halmahera, and as erbabi in Buru and elsewhere. Its resonator is half a coconut shell, usually covered with a membrane of buffalo bladder as a soundtable. A slender bamboo neck passes through the shell and meets the proximal end of the instrument’s wooden foot. It has a single string of vegetable fibre or cotton. The bamboo bow has resined ‘hair’ of fibre from the sheath of sugar palm leaves....

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Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period ...

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Kazunori Sugiyama

(b Mie, Japan, March 14, 1966). Japanese double bass player. He started on electric bass guitar at the age of 16, changed to double bass two years later, and studied classical music when he was 25. In 1990 he joined the Bop Band, led by the trumpeter Hiroshi Murata. He has performed with Junko Onishi, Fumio Karashima, Motohiko Hino, and others....

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Aramba  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Andrew C. McGraw

Vertically suspended bronze gong of Nias, Indonesia. It is imported from Central Java and is equivalent to the Javanese kempul. It is slung from the beams of a house, beaten with the fist or a soft beater (bozi-bozi garamba), and played in an ensemble together with one or more small gongs (...

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(b Rostov-na-Donu, Sept 25, 1936). Armenian composer. She has lived in Yerevan since 1942. She trained at the Melikyan Music College (1955–8), the Leningrad Conservatory (1961–3, composition with Yevlakhov) and at the Yerevan Conservatory (1964–7, composition with Mirzoyan). In ...

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Ārbajo  

Mireille Helffer, Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Long-necked lute of Nepal. It is carved from one piece of khirro wood, the neck widening gradually into the curved, bulging body. The neck is hollowed to extend the resonator and is covered by a fingerboard. The body has a stretched skin belly on which the bridge rests. The four strings extend from the tail to lateral tuning pegs in the pegbox and are plucked with a plectrum, commonly nowadays a plastic guitar plectrum. The ...

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Arbana  

Pribislav Pitoëff

Frame drum of the Māppila (Muslims) of Kerala, south India. The jackwood frame, in which are affixed five sets of little cymbals (each consisting of two to four iron or brass discs), measures 25 cm in diameter and 5.5 cm deep and is reinforced by iron flanges. The head, of goatskin, is glued to the frame without being tightened; before the drum is used, the head is stretched by inserting a piece of vine in the space between the skin and the frame. The ...

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Frank J. Cipolla

(b Lochside, Scotland, 1828; d New York, May 23, 1883). American bandmaster and cornetist of Scottish origin. He joined the 26th Regiment of the British Army, known as the Cameronians, at 13; he served in India and China, returned to Britain, then went to Canada with a military band. He reportedly deserted his regiment to assume the leadership of a band in Troy, New York, where he remained for six months before accepting a similar position in Worcester, Massachusetts. Three years later, in ...

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Daria Semegen

(b Istanbul, April 23, 1919; d Stony Brook, NY, Nov 24, 1990). American composer of Turkish birth. He graduated from the Ankara State Conservatory with a diploma in composition, conducting and piano performance (1947). In 1951 he studied sound engineering in Ankara with Joze Bernard and Willfried Garret of Radio Diffusion Française. He co-founded the Helikon Society of Contemporary Arts and was the first music director of Radio Ankara's Western music programmes (...

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Laurence Libin

Box zither of 15th-century Armenia, supposedly with 100 plucked copper strings. The scholar Hakob Ghrimetsi (1360–1426) described its performance as well as performance on the sandir (santur) and ghanon (qanun); any of these zithers could have been plucked or hammered.

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Talila Eliram

(b Moscow, Oct 26, 1914; d Tel Aviv, Sept 27, 1995). Israeli popular music composer. His family name was Abramovich, but he changed it to the Hebrew name Argov in 1946, 12 years after emigrating to Israel. He was known as Sasha. His mother was a professional pianist and his father a dentist. Argov began to play the piano at the age of three and a half, and when he was six he began composing songs which his mother wrote down for him. He had no formal training in music, and in his adult life music was not his main source of income – he worked as a bank clerk and later owned a bookshop – but composing was always his mission in life....

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Jean Gribenski

(b Düsseldorf, Aug 16, 1930). Israeli and French ethnomusicologist . After studying the french horn with Jean Devémy at the Paris Conservatoire (1951–4), he was first horn in the Israel Broadcasting Authority SO in Jerusalem (1958–63). In 1963 he founded the Musée National Boganda at Bangui in the Central African Republic, and was its director until ...

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See Erkomaishvili family

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André Clergeat

(b Hanoi, Vietnam, April 26, 1950). French trumpeter and flugelhorn player. He discovered jazz at the age of 14 through listening to recordings by Louis Armstrong. In Paris he studied trumpet at the Conservatoire and became active in traditional jazz, most notably in the band Les Haricots Rouges (...

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Andrew Harrison

Australian contemporary improvisation quintet. Its members were Elliott Dalgleish (reed instruments), John Rodgers (violin), Adrian Sherriff (bass trombone, flute, and south Indian percussion), Jon Dimond (six-string electric bass guitar, trombone, and various percussion instruments), and Ken Edie (drums). It was formed by Dalgleish in 1989...

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Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Sept 23, 1920; d Yerevan, March 28, 2012). Armenian composer and pianist. At the Komitas Conservatory in Yerevan he studied composition (with Barkhudaryan and Tal′yan) and the piano (with O. Babasyan), graduating in 1941. He continued his studies at the Moscow Conservatory with Litinsky, Peyko and Zuckermann (...

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Abdel-Hamid Hamam

(b Jan 17, 1929). Jordanian traditional composer, singer and buzuq player of Palestinian Gypsy origin. At an early age he joined a group of Gypsy musicians as a singer and player of the ‘ūd (short-necked lute) and the buzuq (long-necked lute), and performed at weddings and other celebrations in Jerusalem and the neighbouring villages. He began to learn religious chants and Qur’anic recitation at the age of nine. In ...

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Gregory Salmon

Capital of Turkmenistan. Although the Turkmen Dramatic Theatre, founded in 1929, presented some opera, regular productions came only with the establishment of an opera studio in 1937. The opera-ballet studio of the Turkmenskiy Muzïkal’nïy Teatr (founded 1940) formed the basis of the Turkmenskiy Teatr Operï i Baleta, which opened on ...