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Article

Bajón  

J. Richard Haefer

Multiple trumpet of the Mojos (Moxos) Indians of the San Ignacio de Moxos and Tacanas areas of Bolivia. Erroneously sometimes called a fagot or panpipe, it is popularly referred to as a bajón (big bass) by the Moxeños. It comprises 5 to 14 conical tubes of graduated length, made of rolled ...

Article

Bákura  

Alastair Dick

Indian term found in the ancient Sanskrit Ṛgveda (pre-1000 bce), sometimes interpreted, but without certainty, as a musical instrument. It occurs only twice, both times connected with the verb dhmā (‘to blow’), once in the simple form bákura (i, 117.21) and once in the adjectival form ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

End-blown one-piece wooden trumpet of the Mamvu people of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

J.S. Laurenty: Systématique des aerophones de l’Afrique centrale (Tervuren, 1974), 337.

Article

Jean During, Johanna Spector, Scheherazade Qassim Hassan and Mark Slobin

(1) Cylindrical oboe of the Caucasus (particularly Azerbaijan), northern Iran and north-east Iraq. In northern Iran the bālābān is also known by its older Turkish name nerme ney or mey. It has a cylindrical wooden pipe, a broad reed and eight finger-holes, giving the scale E♭ (with an A♮). The warm, full tone of the ...

Article

Bamboo nose flute of the Isneg people of the northern Philippines.

Article

José Maceda

Bamboo instrument of the Kalinga people of the northern Philippines, combining elements of an idiophone and aerophone. It is called pahinghing or paginggeng by the Isneg and pakkung by the Ibaloy. A slot divides the upper half of the thin bamboo tube (about 40 cm long and 3 cm in diameter), and these halves are shaved and shaped into slender tongues. The lower part of the tube is split partway down as a continuation of the slot. When the tongues are struck against the heel of one hand, the split allows them to vibrate and buzz. A small hole at the base of the split is closed or opened by the thumb (or third finger) of the holding hand, altering the length of the air column of the tube and thus the pitch of the buzz. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown ivory trumpet of the Lengola people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a plain oval embouchure and a fingerhole in the tip.

J.S. Laurenty: Systématique des aerophones de l’Afrique centrale (Tervuren, 1974), 389.

Article

Baluat  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Gini Gorlinski

Narrow end-blown duct flute, found in slightly varied types in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The instrument is used most notably by the Karo Mandailing and Toba Batak peoples of the province of North Sumatra, but also by the Gayo and Alas peoples of Aceh. Two types of ...

Article

Balum  

Bullroarer of the Bukaua, Yabem, and other peoples, Huon Gulf, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The term is also used for a cult associated with secret flutes.

A.C. Haddon: ‘Migration of Cultures in British New Guinea’, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland...

Article

Balur  

End-blown rim flute of the Kurds of western Central Asia, also known as nāy or shabbāba. It is about 80 cm long and has six fingerholes and one thumbhole.

See also Shabbāba .

Article

Stephen Cottrell

Term denoting several different single-reed aerophones. The most common type comprises a simple keyless reedpipe, in which one end is cut away at an angle to accommodate a large single reed. The reed is attached over the cut portion by a ligature and rests on the lower lip in performance. Six to eight fingerholes and a left-hand thumbhole are burned or drilled into the bamboo to provide a simple diatonic fingering pattern. Chromatic notes are achieved through cross fingerings or occasional half-holing. Notwithstanding the descriptor ‘saxophone’, almost certainly used for marketing purposes, the coupling of a large single reed with a cylindrical pipe means that such instruments are technically clarinets. Their sound lies somewhere between the clarinet’s and the Armenian ...

Article

Banci  

Patricia Matusky

Large bamboo flute with five fingerholes, of the Bidayuh people of southern Sarawak, Malaysia. It is often played for entertainment (as background music) but can also be used in rituals, where it is believed to recall the spirit of a girl who has fainted or been in a trance. Young Bidayuh men play the smaller ...

Article

John M. Schechter and J. Richard Haefer

An ensemble of gourd (puro) trumpets of various sizes, used in the Chota river valley of Imbabura and Carchi provinces of Ecuador. Formed in the late 19th century by Afro-Ecuadorians without access to Western military band instruments, the ensemble includes several puros (...

Article

Bangali  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown ivory horn of the Barambo people in the Uele region, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a rectangular embouchure and a fingerhole in the tip.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 178.

Article

Bangili  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown ivory horn of the Sere people of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a carved lozenge- or diamond-shaped mouthpiece and a fingerhole in the tip.

J.-S. Laurenty: La systématique des aérophones de l’Afrique centrale (Tervuren, 1974), 352, 372, 382.

Article

Bangsi  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Andrew C. McGraw

Bamboo flute common in ancient Java and found nowadays in many parts of Indonesia and Malaysia. It exists as a duct flute in Minangkabau, Gayo and Alas (bangsi buluh), Siak (bansi), Halmahera (bangsil), Central Sulawesi (basing-basing), and in North Sulawesi as part of the ...

Article

Geneviève Dournon

End-blown trumpet of Rajasthan, north India. It is made of a brass tube about 168 cm long: one part, of cylindrical bore, is bent back in a double U shape; the other, which extends it, widens gradually and terminates in a wide, open bulbous bell shaped like a ‘barbed dish’. It is decorated with engraved or painted floral motifs. In central Rajasthan it is played principally by professional musicians, the ...

Article

Baranga  

Bullroarer of the Vere people of Nigeria traditionally used in the Do Tibas cult, particularly for rain-making rites.

Article

Jeannie Campbell

(bap. Edinburgh, Scotland, Dec 5, 1680; d Edinburgh, Sept 1753). Highland Scottish turner, evidently a bagpipe maker. In 1712 he made billiard balls for the officer in charge of Edinburgh Castle. On all the birth records of children born to Barclay and his wife Elizabeth Arbuthnet in Edinburgh parish, ...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b London, UK, July 17, 1946). Conservator of musical instruments and maker of brasses, based in Ottawa, Canada. After studying fine arts and English at the University of Toronto, he joined the Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, in 1975 as a conservator of furniture and wooden objects. He was trained in instrument conservation at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, and received a PhD from the Open University in ...