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Norman Fraser and Gerard Béhague

(b S Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Dec 6, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Jan 25, 1981). Brazilian musicologist and folklorist. After graduating from law school in Rio de Janeiro, he set out to be an author, journalist and critic. His first writings dealt with criticism and philosophy, but he also wrote important works on music, including the well-known ...

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Robert Stevenson

(b Huánuco, Jan 3, 1871; d Lima, July 17, 1942). Peruvian ethnomusicologist and composer. At the age of 13 he was sent by his mother to live with her brother at Lima, and there in 1887 he began studies of solfège with Manuel de la Cruz Panizo and the piano with Claudio Rebagliatti. He studied medicine at the Lima Facultad de S Fernando (...

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Ingo Schultz and Howard Hotson

(b Ballersbach, nr Herborn, March 1588; d Gyulafehérvár [Weissenburg, Transylvania; [now Alba Julia, Romania], Nov 9, 1638). German theologian, encyclopedist and music theorist. From 1608 he taught at the Calvinist academy, Herborn, where J.A. Komenský was among his pupils. Following the disruptions of the Thirty Years War, he transferred to Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in ...

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Dietrich Kaemper

(b Bad Hersfeld, Jan 9, 1947). German musicologist. He studied musicology at the universities of Marburg and Cologne with Hans Engel and Heinrich Hüschen while taking private lessons in piano, organ and Baroque trumpet (the last with Walter Holy). He obtained the doctorate at Cologne in ...

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Eric Blom and Malcolm Turner

(b Adelnau, Poznań, April 4, 1862; d Hildesheim, March 25, 1951). German musicologist. He received lessons in the violin and music theory from Otto Lüstner while at school in Breslau, and studied medieval history and classical philology at Marburg and Berlin (1882–5...

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Gerard Béhague

(b Varginha, Dec 6, 1911; d São Paolo, Feb 23, 1984). Brazilian folklorist and musicologist. At the São Paulo Conservatory of Drama and Music, Mário de Andrade directed her towards the study of Brazilian folk and popular musical traditions; she also studied ethnography and folklore with Dina Lévi-Strauss (...

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Achilleus Chaldaiakis

(b Herakleion, Crete, 1946). Greek musicologist and conductor. He studied Byzantine music at the Greek Conservatory and Theology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, after which he received a scholarship from the Foundation of National Scholarships (IKY) and continued postgraduate studies in England. He served as professor of Byzantine chant and musicology at the University of Macedonia in Thessaloniki. His doctoral dissertation focused on Byzantine chant and was the first of its kind among Greek university dissertations. He has published several historical, theoretical, and hymnological papers, covering both Byzantine and post-Byzantine music, as well as material for a course on liturgical studies at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. He has served as academic supervisor for many university research programmes specializing in Byzantine music, and his research has resulted in the organization of special photographic and musical archives. He is conductor and founder of the Byzantine University Choir, established in ...

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James W. McKinnon

(b nr Metz, c775; d ?Metz, c850). Writer on liturgy and chant. He was probably educated under Alcuin at the monastery of St Martin in Tours, and served as archbishop of Trier from 809 and 814. In 813 he travelled to Constantinople at the behest of Charlemagne, returning the next year, apparently by way of Rome. He then began his literary activity, probably at Aachen. His longest and most significant work, the ...

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Achilleus Chaldaiakis

(b Anatoli at Ierapetra, Crete, 1938; d July 17, 2003). Greek musicologist. The son of a priest, Byzantine liturgical music was of great importance to his life, as was the folk music of his upbringing. He studied theology and Byzantine music in Athens. At the beginning of the 1970s he taught at the upper secondary school in Ierapetra, simultaneously serving as the cantor at the Timios Stavros Church. From ...

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Craig H. Russell and Monica Hall

(b Monistrol de Montserrat, c1572; d Monistrol de Montserrat, Feb 10, 1642). Catalan theorist, guitarist and physician. Biographical information about Amat is drawn mainly from research carried out in 1918 by José Vilar (Revista Ilustrada Jorba, 1925, and Pujol, 1950). Although baptismal records are missing, Vilar placed Amat’s birth at around ...

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Adeodatas Tauragis

(b Kaunus, Feb 11, 1934). Lithuanian musicologist. He graduated from the Lithuanian State Conservatory (now the Lithuanian Academy of Music) in 1958 and later studied at the Leningrad Conservatory, gaining the MA (1969). He taught at the Vilnius Pedagogical Institute (...

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Philipp Naegele

(b Mauth [now Vysoké Mýto], Nov 17, 1816; d Vienna, June 28, 1876). Austrian music historian and critic. His mother, sister of the musicologist Kiesewetter, fostered his love of music, painting and architecture; the performance of older music in the Kiesewetter home belonged to Ambros’s strongest early impressions. He acquired a musical training, despite his father’s objections, through a keen enthusiasm, an exceptional memory and an unbounded capacity for work. A humanistic Gymnasium education, a doctorate of law completed in ...

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Ambrose  

James W. McKinnon

(b Trier, c340; d Milan, 397). Saint, bishop and Doctor of the Church. He was the son of the Roman prefect of Gaul, and embarked upon a successful political career, being named consular governor of Liguria and Aemilia in about 370. While yet unbaptized he was elected Bishop of Milan by popular acclaim on 7 December 374. Together with Augustine and Jerome he is acknowledged as one of the three great Latin Church Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries. He was primarily a public figure, however, unlike Augustine, the philosopher, or Jerome, the scholar; he consolidated the position of the Church against the powerful Arian heresy and the counter-attacks of paganism....

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Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies ...

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Amerus  

F. Alberto Gallo

(fl 1271). English theorist, active in Italy. He was a clerk and a member of the household of Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi (later Pope Adrian V), and wrote his Practica artis musice in the cardinal's house, perhaps in August 1271 at Viterbo where the cardinal was staying for the conclave. The work is explicitly designed for teaching practical music to boys and includes all the conventional notions of the period concerning ...

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Kristine H. Burns

(b Pasadena, CA, March 1, 1955). American composer, theorist and computer programmer. He studied at Pomona College (mathematics and music composition, BA 1977) and SUNY, Buffalo (MA 1979, PhD 1984); his teachers included Morton Feldman, Lejaren Hiller, Kohn, Kotoński, John Steele Ritter and Dorrance Stalvey. In ...

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Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (...

Article

Fredric Lieberman

(b Toulon, Feb 8, 1718; d Beijing, Oct 8, 1793). French writer on music. After a classical education, he entered the Society of Jesus as a novice in 1737, taught in Jesuit colleges for ten years, then, on being ordained, requested assignment to the China mission. He arrived in Beijing in ...

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Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

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Wayne D. Shirley

(b Brookline, MA, Nov 28, 1943). American conductor, musicologist, and music librarian. Anderson attended Bryn Mawr (BA 1965), the University of Illinois (MM 1969), and the University of Maryland (MLS 1989). Anderson was a Music Librarian at the Library of Congress from ...