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Article

Robert Strizich and James Tyler

Term used to describe the technique of strumming the strings of the guitar in a downward or upward direction with the thumb, or other fingers of the right hand. The term rasgueado was used most commonly from the late 19th century, while, historically, the Italian term ...

Article

Redoble  

An ornament, variously a form of ornamental division or a trill. See Ornaments, §2.

Article

Fenner Douglass, Barbara Owen and David Fuller

The selection of different pitches and tone-colours available on an instrument. The two instruments that offer the player a choice of registration are the organ and the harpsichord.

The musical forces of the organ are available selectively by means of separate stops, or registers, which together provide the entire tonal capacity of the instrument. Each of the stops controls the ‘on’ or ‘off’ position for a series of pipes, grouped so that one or more pipes will respond to each key on a manual or pedal keyboard. The term ‘organ registration’ takes in the large body of advice about what is appropriate when combining organ stops, as well as the aggregate tonal effect of any combination drawn for a particular musical need. There is a rich store of information about registration for the organ that can be classified generally into two categories: practical advice, often supplied by organ builders, which consists of lists of combinations capable of being turned to good use; and instruction from composers or theoreticians about combinations appropriate for performing a particular musical composition....

Article

A type of appoggiatura. See Ornaments, §1 .

Article

Laurence Libin and Jessica L. Wood

Term introduced in the 20th century for instruments that had become obsolete but later were reintroduced as copies based on historical models. Some 19th-century antiquarians essayed earlier music on harpsichords, lutes, viols, recorders, and other types that had fallen out of production, for example in concerts organized by François-Joseph Fétis at the Paris Conservatoire from the mid-1830s, by Prince Albert at the court of Queen Victoria in ...

Article

A type of ornament. See Ornaments and Ornaments .

Article

In string playing, a bowstoke that bounces off the string. See Bow, §II, 3(ix).

Article

Roulade  

A term used to denote particular ornaments. See Ornaments, §6 .

Article

David D. Boyden and Peter Walls

A bowstroke played rapidly in the middle of the bow, one bowstroke per note, so that the bow bounces very slightly off the string of its own accord. It is not indicated in any consistent manner: sometimes dots are placed above or below the notes, sometimes arrow-head strokes, and sometimes the stroke is simply left to the performer's discretion. ‘Spiccato’ and ‘sautillé’ are sometimes used as synonyms, though ...

Article

Faster. A tempo qualification, the comparative of Schnell.

Article

Sigh  

A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §6.

Article

A style of guitar playing and tuning originating in Hawaii in the 19th century. A variety of ‘open’ tunings are used, i.e. with the strings slackened from the standard guitar tuning to form an open major chord. The thumb of the right hand plays the bass while the other fingers play the melody and improvise, and the strings are fretted in the normal way with the fingers of the left hand. The enormous influence that this style had on guitar-playing technique in the USA is often underestimated. Another technique, in which the strings are fretted using a metal bar (a ‘steel’), led to the development of the ...

Article

(Fr. coulé; Ger. Schleifer). An ornament consisting of two short notes making a conjunct approach to the main note. The direction is usually upwards with the ornament on the beat, but downward motion is also found and an unaccented interpretation is occasionally possible.

See...

Article

A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §7 .

Article

Sopra  

A word used in piano music to indicate in passages for crossed hands which hand should be above the other. See also Come sopra.

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

A word for improvised counterpoint, and especially for florid melodies added to a cantus prius factus, used in Germany from c1500 to the middle of the 17th century. The word first appeared in a German MS of c1476 ( D-Rp 98 th.4°) and shortly afterwards in Nicolaus Wollick’s ...

Article

The ‘blocking valve’ on an organ for preventing wind reaching a chest, saving it for other chests or keeping it from sounding a ciphering note. It is useful to the player as a registration aid, as it allows the fast addition of manual reeds or heavy pedal stops while playing. ...

Article

Up-bow. See Bow, §II, 2(i) .

Article

In keyboard instruments, particularly organs, harpsichords and virginals, a key that is divided or ‘split’ into two parts. Most commonly it is the raised ‘sharp’ keys in the bass octaves that are so split, but occasionally natural keys may be divided also (e.g. on an instrument by ...

Article

Peter Walls

A direction placed by Vivaldi (rv 163) above a group of unslurred repeated demisemiquavers in allegro where he wanted ‘divided’ notes – presumably rapidly played in a measured tremolo (see Bow, §II, 2(vi). (In the same work, Vivaldi twice uses the direction battute for slower repeated notes.) The effect resembles ...