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Beverley A. Ervine and William Osborne

City in Ohio (pop. 141,527; metropolitan area 841,502; 2010 US Census). It is located in southwestern Ohio. First settled in 1796, the earliest local musical association of record was the Pleyel Society, organized in 1823 under the leadership of John W. Van Cleve, who played and taught a variety of instruments and was organist at Christ Church. A first Dayton Philharmonic Society, formed in ...



Sanford A. Linscome and Glenn Giffin

American city, capital of Colorado. It was founded in 1858, and the immense wealth that soon flowed from the Rocky Mountain gold and silver mines made possible the creation of a musical oasis in the isolated American west. During its early development Denver's music was dependent on the military band of a nearby army post, touring ensembles and the organists and choirs of churches in the area. A local builder, Charles Anderson, placed a one-manual pipe organ in the H Street Presbyterian church in ...


Zaide Pixley and Eric Saylor

City in Iowa (pop. 203,433; metropolitan area 433,301; 2010 US Census). It became capital of the state in 1857. Its early musical life was shaped by Virgil Corydon Taylor (1817–91), originally from Connecticut, and Maro Loomis Bartlett (1847–1919) of Ohio, who had previously been active in New York and Chicago. Taylor arrived in Des Moines in ...



Horst Seeger

City in eastern Germany, formerly the capital of the state of Anhalt. Documents indicate that sacred music was cultivated there between the 12th century and the 16th; subsequently, however, religious quarrels between Lutherans and Calvinists inhibited musical culture, both in the church and in schools. However, a tradition of choral singing grew up, until the choristers were disbanded in ...



Mary Teal

American city in Michigan. Founded in 1701, the city had little significant musical life before 1850. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1824 brought settlers from the east, but almost 25 years passed before a sustained civic interest in music became evident. This interest grew during the ...


Percy M. Young

Town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It played a conspicuous part in the popularization of music during the industrial expansion of the 19th century. In the Middle Ages Dortmund belonged to the Hanseatic League and enjoyed a prosperity which it subsequently lost and recovered only in the 19th century; medieval affluence is reflected in the main churches, the Marienkirche, the Reinoldikirche and the Propsteikirche St Johannes der Täufer, all begun in the 13th and 14th centuries. The chronicle of Dietrich Westhoff (which covers the period ...


Bojan Bujic

City in Croatia. Located on the Adriatic coast, it succeeded in freeing itself from Venetian domination in the 14th century and existed as an independent, aristocratic republic until 1808, when it was conquered by Napoleon. After the Napoleonic wars it was incorporated into the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and, together with the rest of Croatia, was part of Yugoslavia from ...



Brian Crosby

City in England. The cathedral dates from 995 when Saxon monks made it the resting-place for St Cuthbert's body. The monastic cathedral was reconstituted a cathedral only in 1541. In 1390 the monastery decided to employ a music instructor to train a group of boys, and from ...



German town. See Karlsruhe.


Wolfdieter Meinardus and Dorothea Schröder

City in Germany. Originally a village on the Düssel, now a large city on the Rhine. The musical history of Düsseldorf is characterized by the cultivation of music at the court (15th–18th centuries) and by the civic Niederrheinisches Musikfest (since 1818). Documents relating to the earliest period of musical culture are now lost; the earliest important church is St Lambertus (...


David Johnson, Noël Goodwin and Michael T.R.B. Turnbull

Capital city of Scotland. It was the seat of government until 1707. It was also the largest town in Scotland before 1800 and its artistic capital until 1880, when these features were ceded to Glasgow. Edinburgh's main periods of musical excellence were the 16th and 18th centuries, though there have been interesting local developments since the mid-1960s. The city's modern musical reputation rests largely on its annual international festival, inaugurated in ...


G. Kraft and Percy M. Young

German city in Thuringia. In about 1206 the Wartburg Castle was the scene of a Minnesang contest, the ‘Sängerkrieg auf der Wartburg’ (‘Wartburgkrieg’), that included Walther von der Vogelweide, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Reinmar von Zweter and Klingsor. The event, recorded in the manuscripts of Manessische and Jena, is commemorated in 19th-century accounts – notably Wagner’s ...


El Paso  

Marcia Fountain

City in Texas (pop. 649,121, metropolitan area 800,647; 2010 US Census). Though not incorporated as a city until 1873, the area has a long history of occupation by various peoples. The first documented European presence dates from Don Juan de Oñate’s visit in 1598. It is known that music accompanied a celebration of Oñate’s safe arrival on the banks of the Rio Grande, but a stable population able to support musical activity developed much later. With the arrival of the railroads in the ...



Mikaela Minga

Albanian town. During Ottoman rule (1466 to the early 1900s) it developed into an important imperial centre. Imperial culture shaped musical life on all levels of Ottoman society. Professional musicians of mostly Rom origins entertained audiences in public performances with daulle (davul) and ...


German town, united with Barmen in 1929 to form Wuppertal.



Joseph Manfredo

City located in Indiana (pop. 50,949; 2010 US Census). In 1831, Dr. Havilah Beardsley acquired a land grant for property that would become the city of Elkhart. It was incorporated as a town in 1858 and as a city in 1875. The 1920s, a period of great economic expansion, saw the city’s population grow to 32,949, a 70% increase....



Maurice A. Ratliff

City in England. The earliest reference to music in the city, located near Cambridge, is found in the 12th-century Liber eliensis in which Cnut is reputed to have been impressed with the singing of the Ely monks. Before the Reformation, polyphony was sung in the Lady Chapel, contrasting with the plainsong of the monks’ choir in the cathedral; no music from this period survives. In ...


Town in Germany. See Koblenz.



G. Kraft and Dieter Härtwig

City in Germany, capital of Thuringia. The settlement, situated on the Gera in the Thuringian basin, was designated by St Boniface in 741 as the seat of two monasteries, and quickly developed into an economic and cultural centre. It grew in the Middle Ages, and boasts several fine churches (the Reglerkirche, Barfüsserkirche, Andreaskirche, Predigerkirche, Kaufmannskirche, Neuwerkkirche, St Severikirche and the Augustinian monastery) and secular buildings. The Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, begun about ...



Franz Feldens and Dorothea Schröder

German city in the Ruhr district. It grew up around two religious communities: the Benedictine monastery founded in Essen-Werden in about 800 by the Frisian missionary Liudger, and the convent founded by Altfried (b c800), who became Bishop of Hildesheim in 851. The convent’s greatest period was the late 10th century, when princesses of the Ottonian royal family of Saxony were members; the abbey in Essen-Werden and the minster in Essen date from this period. Although records of musical practice there in the Middle Ages are still largely unexplored, it is clear that these foundations had considerable musical importance. The ...