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Lynda MacGregor

(b Niedernhall, Württemberg, Feb 1, 1773; d Frankfurt, July 26, 1806). German cellist. The son of a schoolmaster, who gave him preliminary musical training, he made local appearances with the cello when he was eight; in 1785 he was apprenticed to the town musician at Künzelsau, where he spent five years, followed by a period with his uncle, who held a similar position at Wertheim. But ensuing attempts to start a solo career, making short tours in southern Germany and Switzerland, proved abortive, hampered by the absence of proper training. Accordingly, he went first to Regensburg for some months' study with Max Willmann, the first cello teaching he had received. He proceeded to Hamburg in ...

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Nicholas Temperley

Reviser Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b ?Essex, c 1715; d Great Warley, Essex, Feb 7, 1792). English psalmodist. He was a singing teacher, parish clerk and (at least in 1790) organist at Great Warley, Essex, and compiled several publications designed for country parish churches. The most important was ...

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(b Paris, Feb 13, 1740; d Paris, Oct 22, 1802). French soprano. A precocious child, she studied Latin and Italian and received a solid general education. Her performance in sacred music impressed the royal family and Mme de Pompadour, and she was appointed to the Opéra, studying declamation with Clairon and singing with ...

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(b Toulon, 1763; d Bordeaux, Oct 1816). French composer. He went to Paris in 1790 or 1791, attracted by the proliferation of theatres following the abolition of the privilege system. The impresario and founder of the Théâtre Molière, Boursault-Malherbe, engaged him first as a cellist and then, after Scio left for the Théâtre Feydeau in ...

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Robert Stevenson

(b 1760; d Seville, Jan 26, 1829). Spanish composer. After having served as maestro de capilla at Tortosa Cathedral and sub-maestro at Barcelona, on 4 July 1785, although not yet ordained a priest, he won the post of maestro de capilla at Gerona Cathedral, beating six competitors. On ...

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Marita P. McClymonds

(b Moraleja de Coca, nr Segovia, Dec 26, 1747; d Paris, Oct 30, 1799). Spanish aesthetician and opera historian. After entering the Society of Jesus (1763) he studied in Madrid, Corsica and Italy, after which he abandoned the Society (1769...

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Philip Bate and David Lasocki

(b Lisburn, Co. Antrim, c1759; d Dublin, 1838). Irish flautist and composer. When 12 he was adopted by Count Bentinck, a British naval captain, and travelled widely with him in Europe. He quickly learnt the flute but abandoned it because of his dissatisfaction with the contemporary one-keyed instrument. He returned to the flute in ...

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Brian W. Pritchard

English family of musicians. They were active in London and the provinces c 1780–1830.

(b ?London, ?1734; d London, March 14, 1805). Bassoonist and conductor. He was first bassoon at Covent Garden Theatre, and became more widely known after his success as assistant conductor to Joah Bates at the ...

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(b Linz, bap. April 2, 1728; d Vienna, July 29, 1786). Austrian composer and violinist. He probably received his first musical instruction from his father, a dancing-master. After his father's death he found employment by 1759 as secretarius and violinist to Count Morzin during Haydn's tenure as music director. He was by then an established composer, with works published in Paris perhaps as early as ...

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Dennis Libby and Marita P. McClymonds

( b ?Naples, c 1745–9; d Rovereto, Dec 18, 1805). Italian composer . He has been called a Neapolitan, but his surname is very common on the Sorrento peninsula. He is first heard of in summer 1765, when he contributed some music to Piccinni’s comic opera ...

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Astor  

Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (...

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Nicholas Temperley and Eva Zöllner

(bap. London, Jan 5, 1740; d London, June 11, 1796). English glee composer. He was a carpenter by trade, but later developed a second career as a composer and singer. In 1773 he was recommended by the renowned organist John Stanley to the Foundling Hospital as a singing master. Although appointed he was soon dismissed, as the General Court decided that the newly appointed organist, Thomas Grenville, needed no assistance in teaching the children. Two years later Atterbury became a musician-in-ordinary to George III. He sang in the Handel Commemoration of ...

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Atys  

Roger J.V. Cotte

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...

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(b Amiens, 1763; d Paris, c1830). French cellist and guitarist. He studied music at the maîtrise of his home town but was self-taught at his principal instrument, the cello. In 1787 he was established as a cello teacher in Paris, and he played for 25 years in the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique. Aubert also took up the guitar after Ferdinando Carulli’s famous appearance in Paris in ...

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(b Bourmont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, June 7, 1732; d Paris, May 21, 1801). French impresario, singer and dramatist. He first made his name as a singer with the Opéra-Comique (after about 1758), chiefly in artisan roles; no doubt it was to exploit this special talent that he was allowed to put on an ...

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(fl Vienna; d 1786). Austrian keyboard player and composer. The daughter of Leopold von Auenbrugger, a well-known Austrian physician who wrote the German libretto for Antonio Salieri’s comic opera Der Rauchfangkehrer, she studied composition with Salieri and published her only known work together with two of his odes. Marianna and her sister Katharina, both distinguished keyboard players, were known to Haydn and to the Mozart family. Haydn dedicated six of his piano sonatas to them (...

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Adolf Layer and Peter Janson

(b c1720; d after 1773). German composer and organist. Shortly before 1759 he succeeded F.X. Richter as Kapellmeister to the Prince-Abbot of Kempten-Allgäu, holding the post until 1756. He published Triplex concentus organicus, seu III. concerti organici a octo instrumentis as his op.1 (Augsburg, ...

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Dieter Härtwig and Annegret Rosenmüller

(b ?Warsaw, 1726; d Dresden, Feb 16, 1787). German composer. He received a thorough musical grounding before becoming chamber musician and organist at the Dresden court in 1745. In the early 1750s he became first organist at the Catholic court chapel, a position he held until his death. He was responsible for the musical education of the elector's children, including the electoral prince. When the latter ascended to the throne in ...

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(b Traismauer, Feb 24, 1728; d St Florian, March 30, 1797). Austrian composer. He was a choirboy in the Vienna Jesuit hostel, where he befriended Michael Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger. In 1753 he entered the Augustinian monastery of St Florian; in the following year he took vows there, in ...

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David C. Wickens

(b ?Avening, 1737/55; bur. London, April 29, 1807). English organ builder. Rigby has suggested that the John Avery baptized at Avening, about 5 miles from Stroud, on 3 January 1738 was the organ builder; the record of his burial at Holy Sepulchre without Newgate, London, however, gives his age as 52, making his probable date of birth ...