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Term meaning ‘two strings’. In clavichords and pianos, for example, a bichord is a pair of strings sounding the same pitch and activated simultaneously by a single tangent or hammer. Many 18th-century pianos have bichord stringing throughout, but later ones often employ trichords in the treble; some early 19th-century pianos retain bichord stringing, while a few have four struck strings per note. Modern pianos generally have bichords only in a portion of the lower register, with trichords above and single strings in the extreme bass. Lutes, mandolins, and related instruments with bichord courses are often called ‘double strung’....

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Laurence Libin

(b Chelsea, London, UK, Dec 20, 1957; d London, UK, Aug 18, 2007). English organ designer and organ historian. He attended Westminster School, Winchester College, and St Chad’s College, Durham University, before beginning work in 1979 for N.P. Mander Ltd. He collaborated with his architect brother Julian on the case for Mander’s organ at Magdalen College, Oxford, completed in ...

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Benjamin Vogel

(b Osiek, Poland, Dec 8, 1870; d ?Włocławek, Poland, Oct 26, 1928). Polish organ builder. At 14 years of age he took over the organ workshop of his father, Hugon Ernst (b c1829; d 17 June 1884), in Osiek; Hugon was reputedly a pioneer of organ mass production. After ...

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Bishop  

Guy Oldham and Nicholas Thistlethwaite

English firm of organ builders. It was founded in 1807 by James Chapman Bishop (c 1783–1854), who is remembered as the inventor of the Clarabella, an 8′ open wood-flute stop, which he frequently used on his own instruments, and often added to old organs, removing Cornets to do so. He claimed to have invented the ...

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William R. Dowd and John Koster

French family of harpsichord and piano makers, active from the end of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th. A Nicolas Blanchet, master instrument maker, worked in Paris in the first half of the 17th century, but his relationship to the later family is unknown. The founder of the family firm was Nicolas Blanchet (...

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Peter Williams and Barbara Owen

The undivided principal chorus of the medieval organ (see Organ, based upon a ‘double Principal’ (two open unison Principals/Diapasons) without any ranks separated off as individual stops. The term itself may be 18th-century (Utrecht organ documents, 1731), although according to J. Hess (...

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Ivan Čavlović

(b Kishinev, Russia, Jan 10, 1914; d Sarajevo, March 25, 1998). Bosnian pianist and pedagogue of Russian origin. Blum began her piano studies in her hometown of Kishinev, continuing them at the Prague State Conservatory, where in 1939 she graduated from the Master School for pianists in the class of Viléma Kurza and Jana Hermana. In Prague she met her future husband, the engineer and eventual mayor of Sarajevo Emerik Blum, with whom she moved to Sarajevo. In Sarajevo she performed as a soloist and a chamber musician and served as one of the founders of Collegium Artisticum, a society for the promotion of modern art. In ...

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Bowed piano. See Sostenente piano, §1.

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Anne Beetem Acker

(b 1786; dc1850). Austrian piano maker. He opened his workshop in 1813 and was granted Austrian citizenship on 6 July 1821. In that year he received a five-year privilege for a music desk with a foot-operated page-turning mechanism, and also a privilege for an organized piano. In ...

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Kurt Lueders

French family of organ builders . Robert Boisseau (b Bordeaux, 9 March 1909; d Poitiers, 29 Feb 1979), after studying engineering in Nantes, set up an independent organ building workshop in Poitiers in 1931. During the difficult economic conditions of the postwar period he worked for Roethinger in Strasbourg until about ...

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Howard Schott and Laurence Libin

French family of piano makers. Jean-Louis Boisselot (1782–1847), scion of a family of instrument makers from Montpellier, began shortly after 1800 to sell sheet music and instruments, including pianos by various makers. In 1820 he opened a store in Marseilles and two years later moved to that city. About ...

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Denzil Wraight

(fl Florence, Italy, 1626–41). Italian harpsichord and virginal maker. Son of Vincenzo, who was also an instrument maker, he came from Prato to Florence, where he worked in the via dei Servi. Two single-manual harpsichords and eight virginals are connected with his name, but the attribution of two of the virginals has not been confirmed. The ...

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The lower part of a reed pipe, into which the block fits (see Organ, fig. ). The corresponding part of a flue pipe is called the foot (see Foot).

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Gerhard Grenzing and Andrés Cea Galán

(b Palma de Mallorca, Spain, Nov 8, 1739; d Madrid, Spain, Dec 2, 1800). Iberian organ builder. His father, Mateu Bosch, built the organ in the Convent de Sant Geròni, Palma de Mallorca (1746). Following Mateu’s death, Bosch became an apprentice to Leonardo Fernández Dávila in Granada. Bosch’s first independent work, in Binissalem (...

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Leon Botstein

Austrian firm of piano makers. Ignaz Bösendorfer (b Vienna, 28 July 1796; d Vienna, 14 April 1859) founded the firm in 1828 after an apprenticeship with Joseph Brodmann. He recognized the need for an instrument that could respond to the demands for volume and pitch stability made by the virtuosos of the 1830s. In a legendary incident only a Bösendorfer piano survived an evening of Liszt's playing. In ...

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Bossard  

Friedrich Jakob

Swiss family of organ builders. They were active especially in German-speaking Switzerland, but also in French-speaking Switzerland, Alsace and southern Germany, and were one of the most important organ-building families in the country in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Their heyday was undoubtedly the first two-thirds of the 18th century, in the time of their founder Josef Bossard (...

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Bossi  

Umberto Pineschi

Italian family of organ builders . The founder of the firm, Antonio Bossi, was born in Mendrisio, Switzerland, and began organ building around 1550. The family later moved to Como in Italy, and in 1635 Gabriele Bossi (b 1604) established his workshop in Bergamo and in the same year built an organ for S Salvatore, Venice. His son, Giovanni Antonio Bossi, was responsible for the organ of Bergamo Cathedral between ...

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Botzen  

Ole Olesen

Danish family of organ builders . Johan Petersen Botzen (c1641–1719) and his younger brother, Peter Petersen Botzen (c1661–1711), were sons of the organ builder Peter Karstensen Botz. They were also organists, the latter in the church of Our Lady, Copenhagen, where the brothers built a marvellous instrument during the years ...

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A type of Jackslide of one-piece construction, commonly used in Italian harpsichords, bentside spinets and Italian virginals.

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Barbara Owen and Michael D. Friesen

(b Pampa, TX, Nov 10, 1936). American organ builder and organist. Bozeman studied organ performance at North Texas State College (now University of North Texas), but left in 1959 before finishing a degree to apprentice in organ building with Otto Hofmann of Austin, Texas. In ...