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Article

Strich  

Howard Mayer Brown

In bowing, Aufstrich is up-bow, Niederstrich or Abstrich is down-bow. But a Taktstrich is a bar-line. The Mensurstrich, a line drawn between and not through the staves, has been used in many modern editions of medieval and Renaissance music, beginning with those made by Heinrich Besseler in the 1920s; it was invented to minimize interruptions to the rhythmic flow and to avoid ties for syncopated notes. Most editors prefer to use ordinary bar-lines, but the ...

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

A name often used for the right pedal of the piano, which when depressed raises the dampers from all the strings, allowing them to vibrate freely in sympathy with any notes being played. In earlier pianos, this effect was sometimes achieved by the use of knee-levers or hand-stops. It was sometimes possible to raise the treble and bass dampers separately, as on those instruments provided with a divided pedal or the less common ones with two damper pedals....

Article

Swell  

Peter Williams, Nicholas Thistlethwaite, Edwin M. Ripin and John Koster

A device for the gradation of volume in keyboard instruments.

The Swell organ is that manual department of an organ whose chest and/or pipes are enclosed on all sides by a box, one side of which incorporates a device (lid, flap, shutters, sashed panel, etc.) that can be opened and closed by connection with a foot-lever or pedal. A stop or half-stop may be thus enclosed, or several departments (Choir organ, Solo organ) or even the whole organ (Samuel Green, St George's Chapel, Windsor, ...

Article

T  

See Tutti.

Article

Peter Williams

A phrase used by composers to instruct the keyboard player of a continuo part to play the bass note(s) alone, without chords above. The phrase seems to occur in music (e.g. Corelli op.5) before it is described in theory books (Heinichen, 1728, Pasquali, Albrechtsberger), where the player is directed to play only those notes, singly (Heinichen) or with their octave (Adlung) or (if long) restruck (C.P.E. Bach etc.). C.P.E. Bach noted that the Italians did not in practice ever play ...

Article

Tenuë  

A form of Tie . See also Ornaments, §7 .

Article

David H. Fox and David L. Junchen

A type of pipe organ built between 1911 and 1940 specifically for the accompaniment of silent films and the performance of popular music in the magnificent movie palaces that arose during the first four decades of the 20th century. Used at first to substitute for the house orchestra during breaks, the theater organ eventually superseded the orchestra, for a single organist could improvise a more flexible accompaniment to the action on the screen. In the United States the term “theater organ” is preferred; in the UK “cinema organ” is used. Many characteristics of the theater organ can be traced to innovations in organs built between ...

Article

Barbara Owen

The term used in America for the specialized organ designed to accompany and provide sound-effects for silent films during the 1920s and 30s ( see Cinema organ ).

Article

A type of ornament. See Ornaments .

Article

Tipping  

A synonym for Tonguing.

Article

Tirare  

Down-bow. See Bow, §II, 2(i).

Article

Tirata  

A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §8 .

Article

Tirer  

Down-bow. See Bow, §II .

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Tombé  

A type of appoggiatura. See Ornaments, §7 .

Article

Sarah Maria Sargent

As applied to keyboard instruments, a term used to refer to the manner of depressing and releasing the keys. Touch is produced by the motion of the finger, the speed and position of the hand and the use or omission of arm weight. Kullak (...

Article

Edwin M. Ripin and John Koster

With reference to keyboard instruments, a term used to describe either the amount of force required to depress a key (‘touch weight’) or the distance that a key may be depressed (‘touch depth’ or ‘key dip’). Thus a keyboard may be said to have a heavy or a light touch, as well as a deep or a shallow touch. In harpsichords, the touch weight necessary to depress a key and cause two or three sets of jacks to pluck their strings is approximately 60 grams and the touch depth is about 7 mm. In modern concert grand pianos, the force necessary to depress a key to sound ...

Article

An inverted mordent. See Ornaments, §7 .

Article

A type of turn. See Ornaments, §7 .

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Tremble  

Term found in English Baroque music for a type of bow vibrato. See Ornaments, §6 .

Article

A type of ornament, variously a trill or a mordent. See Ornaments, §8 .