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A hunting horn. See Horn.

Article

Laurence Libin

Following the precedent of weapons, parasols, and other devices melded with walking-sticks, several types of instruments – especially violin, flageolet, flute, and clarinet – were built in this form, mainly in 19th-century Europe as an outgrowth of Romanticism. Seldom of high quality tonally, walking-stick instruments appealed to dilettantes who amused themselves with music outdoors. The practice of disguising instruments and incorporating them into other implements goes back at least to the Renaissance, but flourished in the 19th century, when increasing affluence, leisure time, and delight in novelty promoted manufacture of often impractical luxury goods. The ...

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Matthew D. Clayton

(b Buffalo, NY, Dec 12, 1943; d New York, NY, Dec 17, 1999). American saxophonist. His father, a jazz fan and saxophonist, bought him his first saxophone at ten years old. Two years later, Washington was playing professionally around his hometown in rhythm and blues groups. He left Buffalo at 16 and began touring the Midwest. He was soon thereafter drafted into the army. In ...

Article

Washint  

Claire Lacombe

End-blown flute of Ethiopia. It is made of a kind of bamboo (schembeko) in various lengths and pitches and typically has four to six equidistant fingerholes, sometimes with any unused ones covered with adhesive paper. The blowing edge is sanded straight rather than notched, and the flute is held obliquely. It is played exclusively by males, often to improvise luxuriant ornamentations on folk melodies. Traditionally, the ...

Article

David K. Rycroft, Reine Dahlqvist and Edward H. Tarr

A small sprung, pivoted lever on brass instruments (though seldom on horns), with an attached pad covering a small hole, used to release moisture trapped inside the instrument. The hole may be opened by depressing the touchpiece of the key while blowing silently into the instrument. Some instruments have more than one water key. Though the provenance of the device is uncertain, there was a water key on the hibernicon, a contrabass bass-horn patented in ...

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Whistle  

Jeremy Montagu

A short, usually high-pitched flute (‘edge aerophone’), either without finger-holes or with no more than one (e.g. the cuckoo whistle; therefore, the Pennywhistle, which has six finger-holes, is a duct flute, but not a whistle within this definition). Whistles may be of wood, cane, metal, plastic, glass, stone, shell or any other material capable of containing a column or body of air. The distinction between flutes and whistles is difficult to establish (a small organ flue-pipe or a tube of a disjunct panpipe, such as is used in Lithuania and by the Venda people of southern Africa, could be defined in the same way); it is normally considered that flutes are used for music and whistles for signalling, leaving a grey area for those instruments which are used, either by the same or by different peoples, for both purposes (e.g. ...

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A common term for Duct flute. See also Pennywhistle; Tin whistle and Whistle.

Article

Obsolete names for the Pipe and tabor.

Pipe and tabor, §2: History

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A type of musical bow sounded by swinging it rapidly around as with a bullroarer. It is found in West Africa, China, Indonesia and parts of Latin America, and is classified in the Hornbostel-Sachs system as a free Aerophone (whirling). See Musical bow.

Article

Karen Monson

(b Buffalo, NY, June 29, 1949). American flutist. After studying in Italy under Severino Gazzelloni, she continued her training at the Oberlin Conservatory under Robert Willoughby (1967–9), the Manhattan School under Harold Bennett (BMus 1971), and the Juilliard School under Arthur Lora (MMus ...

Article

Wolfgang Suppan

A composition for five wind instruments. Although there are many exceptions the usual combination, which became established around 1800, is flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and horn. This grouping evolved from the imperial Harmoniemusik as used at the Vienna court of Joseph II from 1782 (two oboes, two clarinets, two horns and two bassoons). The new quintet combination with its solo voices took advantage of the technical improvements being made to wind instruments during this period, and allowed some of the principles of Haydn's writing for string quartet to be transferred to chamber music for wind instruments. Antonio Rosetti (...

Article

Barra R. Boydell

Wind instruments on which the reed, usually a double reed, is enclosed within a rigid cap (Ger. Windkapsel, Mundkapsel; Fr. capsule à vent) normally of wood. The player blows through a hole at one end of the wind cap, causing the reed to vibrate freely; because there is no contact between the lips and the reed the tone cannot be affected by direct lip pressure as it is with an open reed. Overblowing is not usually possible, so the range of most wind-cap instruments is restricted to those notes that can be fingered directly, normally a 9th; in some cases this range is increased by the use of keys, and there is evidence that the range of crumhorns was extended downwards by underblowing (blowing with less than usual wind pressure). The wind cap also protects the reed from damage....

Article

Deane L. Root and Robert Paul Kolt

(b New York, NY, May 8, 1926). American conductor, oboist, and violinist; son of jacques Wolfe . He began music studies as a child and made his debut as a violinist at Barbizon Hall in New York (1938). From 1942–5 Wolfe attended Queens College in New York and studied violin with ...

Article

Wonga  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Whistle of the Barambo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is carved of wood, spindle-shaped and about 14 cm long. (LaurentyA, 183)

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A term used to describe instruments, in particular Western orchestral instruments, of the flute, recorder and reed-actuated types, whether made of wood or of some other material (e.g. ivory, bone or metal). For further details, see entries on individual instruments; see also Reed instruments and ...

Article

Wot  

Terry E. Miller

Circular panpipe of Laos and northeastern Thailand. It has stopped bamboo pipes of graduated length affixed by beeswax around a central structural core. Originally known in Kalasin province as a toy used by children, who swing it on a string or throw it to produce musical sounds, it was adopted as an instrument for playing tunes in the 1970s. It has achieved such popularity that it has become the symbol of the city of Roi Et, where large statues of the ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Roslyn Rensch and Hugh Davies

Firm of instrument makers and dealers of German origin.

Rudolph Wurlitzer (Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer; b Schöneck, Saxony, 31 Jan 1831; d Cincinnati, OH, 14 Jan 1914) came to the United States in 1853; he settled in Cincinnati and began dealing in musical instruments in addition to working in a local bank. It is likely that he was one of a long line of Saxon instrument makers, beginning with Heinrich Wurlitzer (...

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Xaphoon  

Laurence Libin

Trademark for a single-reed, keyless bamboo aerophone invented about 1973 by Brian Wittman in Maui, Hawaii, and later patented in the USA (D262,035) and Japan (668,249). Ordinarily pitched in B♭, C, or D, it employs a tenor saxophone reed with standard metal ligature, and produces a two-octave chromatic scale sounding one octave lower than a recorder of equivalent length, about 32 cm for the C instrument. It overblows at the 12th. Its tone, described as a cross between a saxophone’s and clarinet’s, and its relatively easy fingering have found favour among some popular musicians as well as amateurs. The name Xaphoon derives from another made-up word, ‘bamboozaphone’. In ...

Article

Xiurell  

Mauricio Molina

Ceramic whistle of Mallorca, Spain. It is made in anthropomorphic or zoomorphic shapes such as horse, demon, bird, or bull and is usually 7 to 15 cm tall. Sometimes one small chamber is filled with water and its sound imitates birdsong. It is sold in street fairs during religious festivities, and accompanies Christmas songs, among other uses. (B. Coll Tomàs and G. Rossello Bordoy: ...

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Xyu  

Wooden oboe, akin to the Chinese suona, of the Hmong people of northern Vietnam, Laos, northeastern Thailand, and southern China. It has six fingerholes and a thumbhole and is played for instance at receptions of important guests, funerals, and weddings.

L.Ó Briain: Hmong Music in Northern Vietnam: Identity, Tradition and Modernity...