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Anne Dhu MCLucas

City in Oregon (pop. 156,000; 2010 US Census). Founded in 1846 by Eugene Skinner, it is located at the junction of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers and has adopted the slogan “A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors.” Its band and choral traditions date to the 1870s; among its 20th-century institutions are the Eugene Symphony Orchestra (founded ...



Gloria Eive

City in Emilia-Romagna, in the province of Ravenna, Italy. The courtly entertainments of the Manfredi family, which ruled the city from 1313 to 1501, included music, dancing and elaborate pageantry. Most of the early manuscripts held in the cathedral archives, the Biblioteca Comunale and the Biblioteca Cicognani were produced for the churches of Faenza; the oldest date from the early 14th century. The Faenza Codex (...



Hungarian village. It is the site of the Eszterháza palace.


Peter Cahn

City in Germany. Founded by the Carolingians in the 8th century, the imperial palace on the River Main developed into the centre of the East Frankish kingdom in the 9th century. From 1147 the king was usually elected there, a privilege which was made law by Karl IV in ...


Hans-Günter Ottenberg

City in Germany, located on the border with Poland. Only a short time after its foundation in 1253 by Franconian merchants the town had acquired great wealth, in particular through its position as a chief port of reshipment for Hanseatic merchandise in the east German interior and as the site of an important bridge across the middle reaches of the Oder. The town’s musical life was primarily the responsibility of the town council and several churches, including St Marien, St Nikolaus (since ...



Percy M. Young

City in Germany. It grew up around the Benedictine monastery founded by St Boniface in 742, and is renowned for the collection of medieval manuscripts in the Landesbibliothek. A ‘Hildebrandslied’ written into a theological treatise survives from the 9th century; at that time music in the abbey was directed by Abbot Hrabanus, a disciple of Alcuin. With its ancient churches and cathedral, Fulda maintained a prominent place in ecclesiastical music throughout the Middle Ages. In the 16th century the Prince-Abbot Johann von Henneberg introduced Georg Witzel to Fulda as a councillor, and the latter produced a Catholic hymnbook. In ...



Adolf Layer and Erich Tremmel

Town in Bavaria, Germany. It belonged to the see of Augsburg until 1802, and was the seat of a Benedictine monastery founded in the 8th century by St Magnus. Some of the abbey’s musical documents date from the early Middle Ages, but most belong to the late Middle Ages, among them the first treatise on polyphonic Passion singing. From ...



Pierre Meylan and Andrew Clark

Swiss city. In the Middle Ages, after the Roman occupation, the practice of church music there differed slightly from that of Rome, possibly through the influence of the abbey of Solesmes. Calvin organized church music during the Reformation (from 1536): psalm singing took the place of the Mass and he had editions made of psalters such as the one by Clément Marot, which was continued by Théodore de Bèze and set to music by two French refugees, Guillaume Franc and Loys Bourgeois. Calvin railed against musical amusements, including dancing, which had hitherto been a favourite pastime, a sort of round-dance called a virolt being performed in the squares on summer evenings and nights. He had all the organs demolished or sold. The bands of fifes and trumpets disappeared and satirical and frivolous songs were condemned....



Rob C. Wegman

Belgian city. Originally a minor agricultural settlement at the conflux of the Scheldt and Leie rivers, the town rose to prominence with the foundation, in the early 7th century, of two major Benedictine abbeys: St Peter (Pieterskerk) and St Baaf. With the formation of the county of Flanders, in the 9th century, Ghent also became the primary residence of the Flemish counts, with a castle (the later Gravensteen), household church (St Pharaïldis, or St Veerle, later raised to collegiate status) and necropolis (the abbey of St Peter). Ghent's earliest parish church was St John (Janskerk, first mentioned in 964). By about ...


Roland Çene

City in southern Albania. The musical tradition of the city of Gjirokastra, institutionally speaking, started to evolve in the first decade of the 20th century. The patriotic and cultural clubs and associations, founded before and after independence (1912), were the first musical development centres of the city. Among them the ...



John Purser

City in Scotland. Located on the river Clyde, it has been a university city since 1451 and the largest city in Scotland since about 1800. It is the home of the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland (previously the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama), the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the BBC Scottish SO, Scottish Opera and Scottish Ballet. It is also the base of BBC radio and television in Scotland as well as the independent Scottish Television....


Watkins Shaw and John C. Phillips

English city. The history of music in Gloucester is inseparable from that of the cathedral, founded in 1541 to replace the former Benedictine monastery. Few of its organists earlier than the 19th century were of much account, but they include the following minor composers: Daniel Henstridge (...



Barbara Przybyszewska-Jarminska

City in Poland, in Poznań province. It was the national capital until the 11th century, the place of coronation of the first Polish kings and the seat of an archdiocese. From the 10th century, Polish cultural life was concentrated at the Gniezno ducal court and in the church of the Assumption of St Mary the Virgin (from ...


Hakan Bengtsson and Anders Wiklund

City in Sweden, the country’s second largest city. Its oldest churches are the Gustafvi Kyrka (1633) and the Christine Kyrka, built for German and Dutch merchants in 1649. These fostered the city’s earliest music, and in the 17th century two musicians were also employed to perform twice a week on the balcony of the town hall and at other municipal functions....



G. Kraft and Dieter Härtwig

Town in Thuringia, Germany. First referred to as ‘Gotaha’ in a document issued by Charlemagne in 775, it grew into a town in the 12th century under Landgrave Ludwig II of Thuringia, and in 1247, with Thuringia itself, came into the possession of the margraves of Meissen (of the Wettin family). When the duchy of Saxe-Gotha under Duke Ernst I der Fromme (...


Percy M. Young and Bernd Wiechert

City in Germany, in Lower Saxony. It is the seat of a famous university and a principal centre in Germany for the performance of the works of Handel and the study of those of J.S. Bach. In the Göttinger Kirchenordnung (1531) the importance of music was stressed, but it was not until the end of the 16th century that significant developments took place; this was a consequence of the establishment of a Pädagogium in ...



José López-Calo

City in southern Spain. Its capture from the Moors by the Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella on 2 January 1492 completed the Christian reconquest of Spain. Granada had been the Moorish capital for centuries, and music was an important part of its court life. Few records survive, however, beyond the descriptions in 16th-century Spanish ...



Hellmut Federhofer and Wolfgang Suppan

City in Austria. It is the second-largest city in the country and capital of the province of Styria. The earliest reference to musical life in Graz occurs in the Reimchronik of Ottokar aus der Gaal, who in 1295 listed Graz musicians and their instruments. Polyphonic music in a style originating in the Netherlands was introduced through Frederick III’s Hofkapelle in Graz, whose first Kapellmeister was J. Brassart. The earliest documented organist is the chaplain Wernhardin, named in the records of the city parish church for ...



Vesna Mikić

Small town in Western Serbia, in Dragačevo Region, near Čačak. Famous for its Dragačevo Trumpet Festival. Leaning on the traditionally prominent role of trumpet (players) in different gatherings (Serbian: sabor) and occasions in Dragačevo during the interwar years and after World War II, and further inspired by the more general folklorist movements associated with the postwar Communist era, the first ...


Clemens von Gleich, Michael Davidson and Wilhelmus Hermanus Thijsse

Dutch city. As the seat of government since the 16th century, The Hague takes second place in Dutch musical life after Amsterdam. Apart from records of bells for the Jacobskerk, the earliest records of musical life date from the 17th century, under the government of stadholder Frederik-Hendrik, when Constantijn and Christiaan Huygens lived there. In the 1670s the viol player Carolus Hacquart organized performances in the Mauritshuis; in ...