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Mary Berry

The Order of Friars Minor, or Greyfriars, began as a small band of enthusiasts led by the Little Poor Man of Assisi, the humble but gifted Francesco Bernadone. In 1209 he and his first companions accepted the challenge of literal and uncompromising obedience to the Gospel precepts. Pope Innocent III gave verbal assent to the first Rule (now lost) presented to him by St Francis. The earliest known Rule is that of ...

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Frederick Hammond and Dolores Pesce

(fl late 5th century–early 6th). Latin Christian author of African origin. Fulgentius belongs with Cassiodorus and Isidore of Seville as a transmitter of predigested classical culture to the Middle Ages. His works include an account of Virgil’s Aeneid as a moral and Christian allegory, a glossary of obscure Latin words, and the three books of the ...

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl 3rd–4th century ce). Writer on music. He was the author of a Harmonic Introduction (Harmonikē eisagōgē), an eclectic mixture of Aristoxenian and Pythagorean theory, together with a treatment of notation. The statesman and writer Cassiodorus knew his treatise in a Latin translation credited to Mutianus (otherwise unknown). He cites Gaudentius both at the very beginning of the section on music (...

Article

Peter Wilton

(b Champs-sur-Layon, Maine et Loire, Oct 31, 1920). French Jesuit liturgical scholar and composer. He studied music at the Ecole César Franck in Paris and theology at Lyon-Fourvière. A member of the Society of Jesus since 1941, he was ordained in 1951 and has been active in liturgical development, both before and after the Second Vatican Council, producing a number of influential books and articles and a stream of liturgical compositions. In Paris he worked with the Centre de Pastorale Liturgique and was professor in liturgical and pastoral music at the Institut Catholique. He co-founded the international church music research group Universa Laus....

Article

Genus  

Thomas J. Mathiesen

A term in the tradition of ancient Greek music theory defining various dispositions of (1) the two movable notes within the tetrachord and (2) patterns of rhythm. The term is also used in its common logical sense to define other distinct groupings that appear from time to time in the theoretical tradition....

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Nicholas Temperley

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See Loder family

Article

Michel Huglo

(b Aquitaine, c940; d May 12, 1003). Scholar and pope. His influence in the history of thought was such that the 10th century has been called the ‘century of Gerbert’. His importance for music lies in his comments on Boethius's De musica institutione...

Article

Alexander Lingas

(b Tyrnavo, Thessaly, ?1625; d ?Wallachia, 1685). Romaic (Greek) composer, cantor, and hymnographer. He studied Byzantine chant in Constantinople under the patriarchal prōtopsaltēs Panagiotes. Some time before 1665 he was elevated to the episcopacy, possibly at the instigation of Patriarch Dionysios III (a fellow native of Thessaly), becoming Metropolitan of New Patras (now Ypati). He appears to have resigned from the see before ...

Article

The term ‘Glagolitic’ (neo-Lat. glagoliticus, from Croatian glagoljica: ‘the Glagolitic alphabet’; related to Old Church Slavonic glagolŭ, ‘word’) refers to a distinctive alphabet devised for the Slavonic literary language in the 9th century by Constantine (monastic name, Cyril) and Methodius, apostles of the Slavs. By extension it is used to refer to the Catholic (as opposed to Orthodox) Mass translated into Church Slavonic, and to compositions such as the Glagolitic Mass of Leoš Janáček that are settings of such texts, whether written in the original alphabet or transcribed into Latin letters. ‘Glagolitic chant’ or ‘Glagolitic singing’ (...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl Rhegium [now Reggio Calabria], c400 BC). Greek writer from the south-west coast of Italy. He was the author of a treatise (now lost) On the Ancient Poets and Musicians, a major source for portions of the Pseudo-Plutarch On Music. The musical writings of the philosopher known as Heraclides Ponticus may have been an intermediary source. Pseudo-Plutarch mentioned the author, title and contents of this treatise in ...

Article

Richard L. Crocker and David Hiley

Hymn of praise, sung in the Latin Mass directly after the Kyrie on festal occasions. Counted as part of the Ordinary of the Mass, the Gloria was provided with over 50 chant settings during the Middle Ages. The text is considered one of the great prose hymns of Christian literature, and the chant melodies are among the more important of medieval chant. The ...

Article

Edward V. Williams and Christian Troelsgård

(fl late 13th century). Composer of Byzantine chant. Glykys was an older contemporary of Joannes Koukouzeles (fl c1300–50) and Xenos Korones and seems to have been active towards the end of the 13th century or in the early 14th. Many manuscript sources reveal that Glykys held the office of ...

Article

Michel Huglo and James W. McKinnon

In Eastern and Western Christian liturgies, the final biblical lesson in the Liturgy of the Word, or pre-eucharistic synaxis (seeMass, §I). It was traditionally chanted by a deacon to a recitation tone that was normally simple but occasionally subject to elaboration.

The first section of the Eucharist in all the ancient liturgies contains a series of lessons concluding with one from the Gospels. The Gospel, because it bore direct witness to the life and teaching of Christ, was accorded a place of pre-eminence, underlined by an elaboration of ceremonies at the point where it occurs: for example, the book containing the Gospel was carried in solemn procession from the altar to the ambo from which it was read. Such a procession, with lighted candles, was already attested by St Jerome (...

Article

Lawrence Gushee and Michael McGrade

(fl 1071–98). Priest and writer of sequences. He is perhaps best remembered for his notarial work in the chancery of Emperor Henry IV, whom he served from 1071 to 1084. During his service at the court he drafted a series of epistles that defended the king's right of episcopal investiture; these letters formed the core of a propaganda campaign waged against Pope Gregory VII, who sought to curb lay participation in the administration of the Church. Aspects of Gottschalk's political allegiance can be detected in one of his compositions, the sequence ...

Article

Michel Huglo and David Hiley

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the chants for the Proper of the Mass and, secondarily, in more recent times, those of the Ordinary (i.e. those of the kyriale).

The majority of graduals have no title; some ancient graduals, however, bear the title Incipit antefonarius ordinatus a Sancto Gregorio...

Article

James W. McKinnon

A term conventionally applied to the central branch of Western Plainchant. Though not entirely appropriate, it has for practical reasons continued in use. Gregorian chant originated as a reworking of Roman ecclesiastical song by Frankish cantors during the Carolingian period; it came to be sung almost universally in medieval western and central Europe, with the diocese of Milan the sole significant exception. The pivotal event in its history was the visit of Pope Stephen II (752–7) to King Pippin III (751–68) in 754. Pope Stephen, together with a considerable retinue of Roman clergy, including, presumably, the Schola Cantorum, remained for several months at St Denis and other Carolingian centres. King Pippin is reported to have ordered the imposition of the ...

Article

Alexander Lingas

(b Constantinople, ?1778; d Constantinople, Dec 23, 1821). Romaic (Greek) composer and scribe. By tradition he was born in Constantinople to the priest Georgios (whence the nickname ‘the Levite’) and his wife Eleni on the day Petros Peloponnesios died, thus highlighting the parallels perceived between Gregorios’s career and that of his famous predecessor. After reportedly teaching himself to speak and chant in Armenian, Gregorios was sent by his father to study Greek grammar and music at the Constantinopolitan dependency (...

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(b Clermont-Ferrand, ?538; d Tours, 594). Frankish historian and bishop of Tours. Valuable evidence for the chant of the contemporary Gallican liturgy is to be found in his works (ed. in MGH, Scriptores rerum merowingicarum, i, 1885/R; for the Decem libri historiarum...

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James W. McKinnon

(b Rome, c540; d Rome, March 12, 604). Saint, pope and Doctor of the Church. Born to a prominent Roman family, Gregory was named prefect of the city in about 570. In 575 he turned his family home into a monastery, and embarked upon a life of spirituality and asceticism. In 579 he was sent to Constantinople as papal representative at the Byzantine court, remaining there until about 586; during his stay he lived with monks from his own Roman monastery, having failed, apparently, to learn Greek. He was elected pope by popular acclaim after Pelagius II died in the severe epidemic of 589–90 that followed upon the overflowing of the Tiber....

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(b Zadar, 1472; d Zadar, 1538). Croatian cosmographer, mathematician, astrologer and physicist. He is known particularly for his ingenious theory of ebb and flow. In 1507–8 he taught astrology and mathematics at the university of Padua and was later active as a physician in his own town. His ideas on music are contained in two published treatises: ...