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Article

James B. Kopp

The bajón, an early, one-piece bassoon, was brought into the southwestern United States during the 17th century by Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries seeking to convert the native peoples. In 1625–6 the packing list for a Franciscan expedition into what is now New Mexico included a ...

Article

Geneviève Dournon and Mireille Helffer

North Indian term for flutes of various types, one of many words deriving from Sanskrit va ṃśa and new Indo-Aryan ba ̄̃s, ‘bamboo flute’. The ba ̄̃surī played by the Rawat shepherds of Raipur district, Madhya Pradesh, central India, is a double duct flute consisting of two bamboo (or plastic) pipes about 53 cm long; one is a melody pipe with five fingerholes and the other a drone. A duct, similar to that of the Rawat ...

Article

Natalie M. Webber

Small cane flute of Sri Lanka. It occurs in various sizes and is made from the ba ṭa reed, found throughout the island. The instrument, known occasionally as vasdanḍa, is often side-blown (arāta); there are six or, less often, seven fingerholes. The pipe is always stopped and varies in length from 23 to 56 cm. These flutes are occasionally lacquered but are far more often plain or polished. Although made in Sri Lanka they resemble closely the side-blown flute of south India and are often used for playing Carnatic music....

Article

Niall O’Loughlin and Denis Watel

(fl Paris, France, c1791–1827). French woodwind instrument maker. In 1803–4 he worked at 282 rue St Honoré, Paris, and from 1809 to 1827 at 23 rue de la Bibliothèque. Surviving instruments include flageolets, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and a bass horn. Baumann reportedly advertised contrabassoons and bass serpents in ...

Article

Heike Fricke

(bc1708; d Vienna, Austria, July 17, 1775). Austrian woodwind maker. Variant spellings such as R. Paur, Rockobauer, Rockopauer, Ruckebauer, and Rochebaur presumably refer to the same person. In the parish books of St Michael’s Church in Vienna he is listed as a civic wind player (...

Article

Bavugu  

Gerhad Kubik

Stamped aerophone of the Khoisan and !Kung people of South Africa and Angola. Three gourds of the Strychnos spinosa plant, open at both ends, are fastened end to end with black wax to form a tube. The bavugu is stamped on the player’s left thigh and the upper end is either hit with the right hand or covered more or less with it to change the pitch....

Article

Bawu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Free-reed aerophone of the Miao (Hmong), Dai, Yi, Hani, and other minority cultures of southwestern China. Bawu is a Chinese name believed to be borrowed from Miao language; local names include bi (Dai), meiba (Hani), and jifeili (Yi). The Thai pī saw is a related instrument. The ...

Article

Bãy  

Mireille Helffer, Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Small beaked duct flute of Nepal. The bamboo tube is about 25 cm long with a diameter of 2.5 cm. It has seven fingerholes and one thumbhole, giving a range of 14 notes. Now obsolete except for a performance group at Kathmandu University, the bãy...

Article

Baya  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown animal horn or ivory horn of the Zande people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The ivory examples have a carved lozenge-shaped embouchure. All have a fingerhole in the tip. The term also refers to a composite side-blown horn of the Zande, made of ivory and wood, also with a similar embouchure and a fingerhole in the tip....

Article

Darcy Kuronen

(b Boston, MA, March 29, 1798; d Canton, MA, Jan 5, 1883). American inventor, designer, and maker of free-reed instruments. He was a son of French Huguenot parents who came to Boston in 1788; his father, trained as a watchmaker, made and sold hardware, and no doubt Bazin gained from his father an interest in mechanics. His instruments had limited influence on later manufacturers, but are among the earliest of their type made in the USA. About ...

Article

Bazuna  

Slightly conical wooden horn from the Kaszuby region of Poland. The name possibly comes from German Posaune. It is commonly made from alder or spruce in two rejoined halves in the manner of an alphorn, about 1 to 1.5 metres long, and produces four to eight harmonics. It is traditionally played by shepherds and fishermen. Similar Polish instruments include the ...

Article

Bbare  

Free-reed aerophone of the Koho people of central Vietnam, akin to the dding klut. It has a single pipe with three fingerholes, which is attached with wax to a gourd windchest.

Article

Beard  

Device for modifying and stabilizing the speech of narrow-scaled flue pipes in organs. It is usually a cylindrical dowel positioned between the ears flanking the mouth, or a bar connecting the ears at the bottom. It acts passively on the flow of wind past the languid. A type of beard known as ...

Article

Margaret J. Kartomi

Hornpipe of the Gayo in the Takengon area of Central Aceh, Sumatra. Its rice-stalk pipe, about 3 mm wide and 20 cm long, has an idioglot single beating reed cut near the top and a horn-shaped bell made of wound strips of green pandan palm leaf attached to the lower end. As its pitch and tuning are not fixed, the four to six fingerholes are not uniformly placed. Circular breathing (...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b Heidenheim, Germany, March 16, 1944). German maker of early wind instruments. He played the flute from age 11. In 1961 he passed the journeyman’s examination as a precision mechanic and worked until 1965 in industry (for Carl Zeiss, Telefunken/AEG, and ELDATA). He passed the Abitur in ...

Article

Term used by the Navajo people of the southwestern USA for a whistle.

Article

James B. Kopp

(b Apeldoorn, Netherlands, Oct 8, 1945). Dutch maker of bagpipes and other historical woodwind instruments. Largely self-taught as a maker, he fashioned instruments from household objects (cigar-box lutes, flutes from electrical conduit, etc.) from the age of six. His parents sent him at the age of ten to a course of the Dutch Pipers Guild, whose members made simple flutes of natural cane (...

Article

Bel  

Set of seven stopped end-blown flutes of different sizes of the Angas people of Nigeria. The pipes are made from river reeds and blown in hocket by young men on social and ceremonial occasions.

See Stopped flute ensemble.

Article

Bele  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown antelope horn of the Sango in the Ubangi region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The horn has a fingerhole in the tip and a rectangular embouchure.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 179–81.

Article

A mechanical instrument built by Johann Gottfried Kaufmann and his son Friedrich of Dresden about 1805. It sounded a trumpet fanfare by means of 24 free reeds (reportedly with resonators in the form of ‘reversed trumpets’) which could be played piano or forte; a crescendo and flourishes could be obtained on two connected kettledrums. A model that played all the regimental marches of the Prussian cavalry was built for the King of Prussia....