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F. Alberto Gallo and Andreas Bücker

(b ?Leno, nr Brescia; fl 1st half of the 15th century). Italian ?theorist. An incomplete treatise on music, in Italian, found in a manuscript of the second half of the 15th century ( I-Vnm Lat.336, coll.1581, 50v–64r), contains musical examples attributed to ‘Antonius de Leno musichus’; it is uncertain, however, whether the text of the treatise can safely be attributed to him. Only three sections survive: the first, on mutations, may have been the final part of a larger section on ...

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Beatrice Pescerelli

(fl 15th century). Italian theorist. He was a Servite friar and pupil of one Laurentius of Orvieto, a canon of S Maria Maggiore. His treatise Ars cantus figurati (CoussemakerS, iv, 421–33) is a compilation on musica mensurabilis according to the theories of Johannes de Muris; it deals with ligatures, alterations, proportions and prolations, giving diagrams and music examples. The work is discussed in A.M. Busse Berger: ...

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Marysol Quevedo

(b Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 11, 1955). American literary scholar. She studied Spanish and Comparative Literature at Indiana University (BA 1978), and earned the MA (1980) and PhD (1983) in Spanish from Harvard University. Aparicio’s research focuses on languages, cultural hybridity, and transnationalism in Latino and Latina culture. She examines the role of popular music in defining the cultural changes, hybridity and cultural politics in Latin American popular culture. She is the author of ...

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John Reeves White and John Caldwell

(b Konitz, West Prussia [now Chojnice, Poland], Oct 10, 1893; d Bloomington, IN, March 14, 1988). American musicologist of German origin. He studied mathematics at the universities of Bonn and Munich (1912–14) and, after war service, at the University of Berlin (...

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Mark Hoffman

(b Hanau, June 20, 1839; d Hanau, Jan 13, 1900). German acoustician, son of Georg Appunn. At the Leipzig Conservatory he continued the acoustical experiments of his father, especially the determination of vibration ratios of very high tones by optical means, and constructed fine acoustic apparatus. He devised a new shape for the glockenspiel, with right-angled metal rods in a circular arrangement and a metal half-sphere above as a resonator....

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(b Hanau, Sept 1, 1816; d Hanau, Jan 14, 1888). German musical theorist and acoustician. He studied theory with Anton André and Schnyder von Wartensee, the piano with Suppus and Alois Schmitt, the organ with Rinck and the cello with Mangold. He became a well-rounded musician who could play almost every instrument. Until ...

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Edward Booth and Sean Gallagher

(b Roccasecca, 1226; d Fossanova, March 7, 1274). Italian Dominican priest and theologian. He was described as ‘Doctor Angelicus’. He led a life of intense study, lecturing and writing at Cologne, Paris and Naples. His works form the most profound, comprehensive and ordered scholastic synthesis of the scriptures, patristic teaching and philosophy; his philosophical work consists primarily of a judicious interpretation of Aristotle and his Greek and Arab commentators, integrated with an often neglected element of Platonist thought (mostly derived through St Augustine and neo-Platonist intermediaries). He was canonized in ...

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Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period ...

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Don Harrán

(b Spain, c1420; d Naples, 1494). Rabbi and philosopher. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, he settled in Naples. He referred to music under the heading nigun ‘olam (‘cosmic music’) in chapter 12 of his ‘Aqedat Yits ḥaq...

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Robert Stevenson

(b ?Aranda de Duero, c1495; d Coimbra, Feb 15, 1548). Spanish theorist. He studied music theory with Pedro Ciruelo at the University of Alcalá de Henares sometime before 1524; later he went to Italy for practical instruction. By 3 April 1528 he was ...

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Nina Yur′yevna Afonina

(b Leningrad, Aug 25, 1928). Russian musicologist. He studied at the Leningrad Conservatory under the supervision of E.L. Frid, graduating in 1952, and subsequently undertook postgraduate studies at the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography under M.K. Mikhaylov, gaining the degree in ...

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André Barbera

(fl first half of the 4th century bce). Mathematician, music theorist and inventor. A friend of Plato, he may have been taught by Philolaus, the first man known to have publicized Pythagorean discoveries widely. Although no extended writing by Archytas survives, fragments attributed to him are contained or summarized in the works of others. He may have been the first author to establish the subjects of the Quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music). He also expounded a theory of acoustics that associated pitch with the speed of sound as it passed through the air, noting that sounds arriving swiftly and strongly appear high-pitched, whereas those arriving slowly and weakly appear low-pitched (Diels, 47b1)....

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(b Seville; fl 1628–33). Spanish writer. He was a member of the Trinitarian order in Seville. Between 1628 and 1633 he wrote several pseudo-historical works on local and religious topics as well as one pertaining to music: El psalterio de David: exortación, y virtudes de la música, y canto, para todo género de gentes, en particular para los eclesiásticos, y obligación que tienen de cantar, o rezar las divinas alabanzas con toda atención, y devoción...

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Ingrid Brainard

(b Solliès, [now Solliès-Pont, Var], late 15th century; d Saint Rémy, Bouches du Rhône, or Solliès, after 1543). French dance theorist and man of letters. In 1519 he began to study law at the University of Avignon, after completing his studies he joined the French troops that invaded Italy. Late in ...

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(b Buenos Aires, April 13, 1913; d Buenos Aires, June 2005). Venezuelan-Argentine ethnomusicologist, folklorist and composer, wife of Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera. She studied the piano under Rafael González (1923–31) and composition with Athos Palma (1928–33) at the Buenos Aires National Conservatory of Music, instrumentation with Villa-Lobos in Brazil (...

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Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Stagirus, 384 bce; d Chalcis, 322 bce). Greek philosopher.

In order to consider Aristotle's views on music, it is necessary to make some reference to the theories of sense perception and ethical behaviour on which they are based. His treatise On the Soul...

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Annie Bélis

(b Tarentum, Magna Graecia, c375–360 bce; d ?Athens). Greek music theorist, philosopher and writer. According to the Suda he was the son of a musician called Mnesias or Spintharus who gave him his early musical education. It is not known to which philosophical or musical school Mnesias belonged, but he may have been one of the Pythagoreans whose political influence had been dominant in Magna Graecia, particularly in Tarentum, with which Archytas had long been associated. Mnesias could have known a number of prominent figures both in Magna Graecia and in Athens: the musicians Archytas, Damon and Philoxenus, as well as Socrates and perhaps even the Theban general Epaminondas. Aristoxenus himself followed the teachings of Lamprus of Erythrae, and then, in Athens, of Xenophilus the Pythagorean. He spent most of his life in Greece. A fragment of one of his works indicates that he lived for some time at Mantinea in Arcadia, where music, which was held in high esteem, was subject to the kind of conservative laws that appealed to his austerity and love of ancient traditions....

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(b Moscow, March 15, 1958). Russian musicologist, pianist and composer. In 1978 he entered the Gnesin Academy of Music, where he studied the piano with A.V. Aleksandrov and the theory of music with Yu.N. Kholopov, M.G. Kharlap and L.A. Mazel′. He completed his postgraduate studies there on the piano in ...

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(b Norwich, April 10, 1864; d Highclere, Hants., Aug 16, 1944). English music scholar. He studied at Eton and Oxford, where he was subsequently editor of the Musical Antiquary (1909–13/R). He edited a large body of English vocal music of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries – madrigals and songs by Weelkes, Ferrabosco and Blow, and sacred works by Tye and Milton – published in 25 volumes in the Old English Edition (London and Oxford, ...

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Jürg Stenzl

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], March 5, 1938). German musicologist. He studied musicology at the universities of Cologne (1958–60), and Basle (under Schrade), where he obtained the doctorate in 1966 with a dissertation on the Beauvais Office for the Feast of the Circumcision. As an assistant he maintained and expanded the Basle microfilm archives, and became editor of ...