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Article

A repeated-note ornament. See Ornaments, §4 .

Article

Capirola’s term for a mordent, usually alternating between the first fret and the open string of the lute. See Ornaments, §1 .

Article

Barbara Owen

An important accessory stop found in organs of all sizes since the early 16th century, although it is not always mentioned in early contracts, and is sometimes referred to by other names (e.g. ‘shaking stop’ in Tudor England). By slightly disturbing the wind supply, it causes an undulating or ...

Article

Triller  

Trill. See Ornaments, §8 .

Article

A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §8 .

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Trinado  

Trill. See Ornaments, §2 .

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Trino  

Trill. See Ornaments, §2 .

Article

James Blades and James Holland

A set of tuned metal tubes (classified as an idiophone: set of percussion tubes). They are used for bell effects in the orchestra and on the operatic stage, real bells being cumbersome, heavy and difficult to play with rhythmic precision. Tubular bells consist of a series of brass or steel tubes ranging in diameter from about 3 to 7 cm; the greater the diameter, the longer the bell tube. The compass of the standard set of tubular bells is ...

Article

Douglas Leedy and Charles Corey

Systems of organization of the pitch scale. Such systems are either “just” or “tempered.” Just systems consist entirely of pure intervals, and though literal transposition of patterns or scales may be very limited, other musically useful symmetries are available. Tempered systems are those in which the purity of some or all intervals is deliberately compromised in order to render other intervals less impure, and thus increase the number of musically serviceable intervals. Over the course of centuries countless tunings and temperaments have been proposed, but few have been of practical importance; of these, 12-tone equal temperament has become the standard in Western music since the 19th century....

Article

Turn  

A type of ornament in which the main note alternates with its two auxiliaries a step above and below. See Ornaments.

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Tut  

A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §6 .

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Five-stringed small guitar of Mexico. Commonly known as the vihuela, it is played in the mariachi ensemble as a harmony and rhythm instrument, and should not be confused with the Spanish vihuela de mano. It has a loud, crisp, rapid-decay sound. The soundbox is typically 39 cm long with a 29 cm maximum width, a 28 cm neck with four to six movable nylon frets, and 50 cm string length. The maximum depth of the sides is 10.5 cm plus an additional 6 cm depth to the apex of the vaulted, angled back. Wooden pegs inserted from the rear of the pegboard are traditional but nowadays most vihuelas have mechanical tuners. The tuning is ...

Article

One of the two primary registers of the singing voice. The voice resonating from the chest is lower in pitch and bigger and darker in sound than that resonating from the head (see Voce di testa). Beginning in the 18th century, singing tutors discussed these registers at length, taking various positions on how to unite the break (...

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A type of ornament. See Ornaments, §6 .

Article

Tongue, as in Zungenstoss or Zungenschlag; that is, an attack or stroke of the tongue (for further information see Tonguing).