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Jacques Aboucaya

(b Oran, Algeria, Oct 25, 1961). French pianist and composer. After taking lessons in classical piano he went to the USA to study at the Berklee College of Music (1981–3) and then at the Manhattan School of Music (MM composition). He appeared in the BMI Jazz Composition Workshop under the direction of Bob Brookmeyer (...

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Nevil Skrimshire

(b London, Aug 20, 1911; d London, December 19, 2005). English clarinetist and saxophonist. He took up piano when he was ten and taught himself alto saxophone from the age of 13. Although he began playing professionally in Glasgow, in 1930 he moved to London. In ...

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Michael Davidson

Capital of the Netherlands. It is the largest city in the kingdom. In 1634 Jan Hermanszoon Krul founded the Musyck Kamer, a society formed to discuss the relationship of music to drama. However, the first opera house, built on the Leidsegracht by Theodoro Strijker, did not open until ...

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Jan van der Veen, J.H. Giskes and Michael Davidson

Capital city of the Netherlands. Its musical history reflects the city’s rapid growth from a small settlement in the 13th century to a centre of world trade as a result of 17th-century Dutch colonial expansion. During this period the city government, merchants and patricians promoted music not only as a leisure activity, but also to add to their status. Civic encouragement of music has continued since then, notably in support of the Concertgebouw Orchestra (founded ...

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Nicholas Anderson

Dutch period-instrument orchestra. Founded by Ton Koopman in 1979, it has toured widely and has made numerous recordings, notably of music by Bach (including a complete cycle of cantatas), Handel and Mozart. Koopman performs regularly with the orchestra both as conductor and as harpsichordist and organist. Under his directorship it has acquired a reputation for lively, warm-toned, stylistically distinctive playing....

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Amthrán na bhFiann

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Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Peki-Avetile, Sept 13, 1899; d Peki-Avetile, Jan 1995). Ghanaian composer. After studying the rudiments of music and the harmonium at the Basel Mission Seminary at Kwahu Abetifi, Ghana (1916–19), he received formal lessons in harmony and composition from Emmanuel Allotey-Pappo; a teaching career at Akropong Teacher Training College gave him opportunities to embark on a series of choral works. The existing framework of African identity and personality, as proclaimed by Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana's first president after independence, greatly influenced Amu's attitude and general compositional language in his later years. After being dismissed from the college in Akropong for his overt articulation of African ideas, he moved to Achimota Training College (...

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Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (...

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Amy Grant, 2007.

ROBERT PITTS/Landov

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Amy Marcy Beach

T.P./Lebrecht Music & Arts

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Nigel Burton

Opera in three acts by Isidore De Lara to a libretto by Augustus Henry Glossop Harris and Frederick Edward Weatherly, after Walter Scott’s novel Kenilworth; London, Covent Garden, in a French translation by Paul Milliet, 20 July 1893.

The Earl of Leicester (tenor) fears that he will lose the favour of Queen Elizabeth (mezzo-soprano) if she learns of his secret marriage to Amy Robsart (soprano). Amy is therefore kept secluded at Cumnor Hall in the care of Leicester’s wicked retainer Varney (baritone). Her childhood sweetheart Tressilian (tenor), ignorant of her marriage, petitions the Queen for her release. Varney, fearful for his own ambitions, plots Amy’s murder; Leicester arrives at Cumnor to rescue her but, to his horror, she plunges to her death through a hidden trapdoor previously set by Varney....

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Barry Kernfeld

(b Houston, Oct 11, 1927; d Los Angeles, June 5, 2002). American tenor and soprano saxophonist and leader. Published sources have given his year of birth as 1929, but the Texas birth index gives 1927, and Amy confirmed that the earlier year is correct. He learned to play clarinet as a child, took up tenor saxophone while playing in an army band, and attended Wiley College (Marshall, Texas) (...

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Jeremy Thurlow

(b Paris, Aug 29, 1936). French composer and conductor. Having won national first prize in the philosophy Baccalaureat in 1955 he began to compose, and went to study music at the Paris Conservatoire (1955–60), where his teachers included Milhaud, Messiaen and Loriod. But his ideas about composition were particularly galvanized by meeting Boulez in ...

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An 18th-century church choir: engraving by F.H. van Hove from ‘The Psalm Singer’s Necessary Companion’ (1700)

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27. An example of graphic sound synthesis as a hybrid of an instrument and a musical score; lines are drawn to determine frequency (pitch) on the vertical axis against time on the horizontal axis (Iannis Xenakis, "Mycenae-Alpha," 1980) n/a

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William F. Prizer

(b ?Venice, c1460; d Venice, late 1502, or before Feb 6, 1503). Italian composer and organist. He was appointed the first player of the second new organ at S Marco, Venice, in 1490, having previously been organist at S Leonardo there. He held the position at S Marco until shortly before ...

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Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka, now rare. It is a small version of the daula, about 30 cm long and beaten with one hand and a stick. It was used to play ana-bera, a drum pattern played by a public crier to draw attention to a proclamation about to be made. As late as the 1980s the services of a crier were still occasionally needed in villages, when the ...

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Dimitri Conomos

In the Byzantine rite, a set of three or four short antiphons to the gradual psalms (verses from Psalms cxix–cxxx and cxxxii) sung at Sunday Orthros . There is a set for each of the eight modes. Although they were compiled in the 8th century, probably by Theodore of Stoudios (...

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Michael Tilmouth

A term used in ancient Greece in the period of Pindar for the prelude or introduction to a song but subsequently associated with the melodically extravagant, chromatically inflected solo songs or monodies of which Timotheus of Miletus was the most significant exponent. Hans Kotter used the term (in Greek) in the early 16th century for a freely constructed keyboard prelude in a tablature (in ...