1,641-1,660 of 57,904 results

Article

Michel Laplace

French band. Co-founded in 1976 by Marc Richard and the pianist and historian Philippe Baudoin, it was inspired by the concept of playing a modern repertory by Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, and others in a traditional-jazz style, as may be heard on its eponymous début album, ...

Article

Walter Hüttel

(b Freiberg, Saxony, Oct 17, 1790; d Freiberg, Aug 21, 1854). German Kantor and composer. He studied at the Freiberg Gymnasium, then at Leipzig University, where he took the master’s degree. He continued his education with J.G. Schicht, W.F. Riem, G.C. Härtel and Friedrich Schneider and lived in Leipzig as a singer, pianist and music teacher. In ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Teos, c.570 bce; d 490 or 485 bce). Greek lyric poet. An Ionian by birth and upbringing, he spent his professional life in the service of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, and later at Athens under the patronage of Peisistratus’s son Hipparchus. His poetry reflects the gay, sophisticated atmosphere of the courts where he was musical arbiter; underlying it is the cultural heritage of his native Ionia, especially the distinctive tradition of lighthearted monody....

Article

Acte de ballet by Jean-Philippe Rameau to a libretto by (Jean-)Louis de Cahusac ; Fontainebleau, 23 October 1754.

Intended for a projected opéra-ballet, Les beaux jours de l’Amour, this is one of two independent works by Rameau with the same title (the other, to a libretto by Pierre-Joseph Bemard, eventually became part of ...

Article

London society of aristocratic and wealthy amateur musicians founded in 1766. See London, §V, 2 .

Article

Añafil  

Mauricio Molina

Term for the Arab and Persian nafīr, a straight trumpet. It was introduced to Iberia by the Moors during the Middle Ages. The añafil is commonly represented in Iberian art from the 10th century to the 13th with banners and in the context of battles, and thereafter throughout medieval European iconography....

Article

Brian W. Pritchard

Dramma per musica in three acts by Antonio Caldara to a libretto by Gerolamo Gigli ; Rome, Palazzo Bonelli, 4 January 1711.

This opera, commissioned by Francesco Maria Ruspoli for Carnival 1711, was staged 13 times by 5 February and was perhaps the most frequently performed of all Caldara’s operas. Its plot is based on an incident in Bartolommeo de Rogatis’s ...

Article

James W. McKinnon

A reader in the Orthodox Church. His function is to announce the Prokeimenon of the day and to chant the appropriate lessons from the Old Testament or the Epistles (see Ekphōnēsis). The related term ‘anaginōskos’ (Gk.: ‘reader’) already appears in the description by Justin Martyr (...

Article

A kalophonic (‘embellished’) setting of certain Byzantine stichēra (see Stichēron) used on festal occasions. Only a part of the hymn text is used, and this is preceded and followed by very florid teretismata; see Kalophonic chant.

Article

(fl 1617–25). Italian composer. His name has sometimes been incorrectly spelt ‘Anagnino’ and ‘Agnanino’. He was an Augustinian monk and lived for part of his life in Naples. He published several volumes of music but only two survive (and the second of these is incomplete): ...

Article

Hugh Davies

Instrument constructed by Akio Suzuki in several versions since 1972. It consists of a long, flexible spring stretched between two metal cylinders, each with an ‘echo-plate’ across one end. One cylinder is normally fixed. The spring, which can be extended up to at least 8 metres, is stroked, plucked, or struck; the instrument is also effective if, when the spring is extended, the performer sings into the cylinder that is held. Three types of Analapos have been made: Type A is a single unit (many of which have been sold to collectors); Type B (four models) consists of a tall stand from which between four and about 20 units are suspended; and Type C, the Deep-Sea Sonar, consists of a single spring mounted inside a cardboard tube about 1 to 1½ metres long, which is shaken to produce the sound (hundreds have been made for educational purposes). The long resonances and echoes of the first two types are matched visually: especially when the spring is fully stretched, a ‘wave’ can be seen to travel across the instrument several times in each direction before dying away. Suzuki has explored similar sound qualities in the Spring Cong family, in which lengths of thin sprung steel ‘ribbon’ are mounted on a stand (in spiral or arc configurations, or in two interlocking vertical loops at right angles to each other) or on a wooden base (in arc or ‘omega’ shapes)....

Image

Analogue waveform with digital representation

Oxford Illustrators

Article

Ian D. Bent

Reviser Anthony Pople

A general definition of the term as implied in common parlance might be: that part of the study of music that takes as its starting-point the music itself, rather than external factors. More formally, analysis may be said to include the interpretation of structures in music, together with their resolution into relatively simpler constituent elements, and the investigation of the relevant functions of those elements. In such a process the musical ‘structure’ may stand for part of a work, a work in its entirety, a group or even a repertory of works, in a written or oral tradition. The relationship between the structures and elements proposed by analysis, and experiential, generative and documentary perspectives on music, has circumscribed analysis differently from time to time and from place to place, and has aroused debate. Less controversially, a practical distinction is often drawn between formal analysis and stylistic analysis; but this is unnecessary insofar as on the one hand any musical complex, no matter how small or large, may be deemed a ‘style’; and on the other hand, all the comparative processes that characterize stylistic analysis are inherent in the basic analytical activity of resolving structures into elements....

Article

Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu

Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...

Image

Anastasia Robinson: mezzotint by John Faber the younger after John Vanderbank, 1727

The property of Lord Langford

Article

Werner Bachmann and Belkis Dinçol

An area roughly corresponding to the Asian part of Turkey. At the time of the Hittite empire (c 1400–1200 bce), which included central and south-east Anatolia, Hittite rule extended into northern Syria. Archaeological research in Turkey since the middle of the 20th century has resulted in a substantial increase in the materials available for a reconstruction of the history of Anatolian music. Evaluation of these finds, which include instruments and depictions of musicians, together with information from Hittite cuneiform texts has led to a new understanding of the musical life of the area. Not only does Anatolia appear to have stood out from the rest of the prehistoric cultural environment of the Near East and Mediterranean, but the range of musical instruments produced and developed there is greater than was previously thought. The widespread belief that Anatolia was primarily a land of transition – a bridge between the advanced cultures of Mesopotamia, the Levant, Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean civilizations – and that the highland population mostly adopted foreign cultural traditions can no longer be sustained. Indeed, the evidence indicates the presence of many indigenous elements in Bronze Age Anatolian musical culture and a strong vein of creativity on the part of the Anatolian people....

Article

Agustín Fernández

(b Cochabamba, Sept 23, 1912; d Cochabamba, Feb 15, 1998). Bolivian pedagogue, composer and architect. After fighting in the Chaco War he studied music and architecture in Chile (1936–42); thereafter, apart from a study trip to Madrid in 1959, he remained in his native Cochabamba. The Coro de los Valles, which he founded in ...

Article

Andrew Flory

American record company. In 1973, Neil Bogart, Cecil Holmes, Larry Harris, and Buck Reingold founded Casablanca, an independent label based in Los Angeles that specialized in rock, funk, and disco. With Bogart as figurehead, the company released music by some of the most important and successful artists of the 1970s, including the theatrical rock-band Kiss, best-selling disco artist Donna Summer, gay icons the Village People and Cher, and funk acts Parliament and Chic. The producer Giorgio Moroder, known for his extended disco arrangements, was associated closely with Casablanca during the latter half of the 1970s. After the company’s acquisition by Polygram in ...

Article

Arthur Jacobs, Charles Barber and José A. Bowen

(b Tučapy, Bohemia, April 11, 1908; d Toronto, July 3, 1973). Czech conductor. He studied composition and conducting at the Prague Conservatory (1925–9) and then was assistant conductor to Hermann Scherchen in Alois Hába’s opera The Mother at Munich in 1931...

Article

See Gluck, Christoph Willibald, Ritter von