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(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In ...

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(b Venice, Aug 7, 1673; d Venice, Jan 20, 1731). Italian amateur musician and writer. He published anonymously at Venice in 1730 a detailed catalogue of the operas performed in the city to that time: Le glorie della poesia e della musica contenute nell’estatta notizia de' Teatri della città di Venezia, e nel catalogo purgatissimo dei drammi quivi sin’hora rappresentati, con gl'auttori della poesia e della musica e con le annotazioni ai suoi luoghi propri...

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Jamie C. Kassler

(b Rothbury, Northumberland, Nov 5, 1715; d Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept 23, 1766). English clergyman, writer and amateur musician. He was educated at Cambridge University and held several positions in the Church of England. His contribution to music historiography is contained in his ...

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Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Feb 4, 1723; d London, Aug 4, 1792). English dramatist . ‘Gentleman Johnny’ Burgoyne, the English general forced to surrender to the Americans at Saratoga (1777), was the librettist of William Jackson’s only successful opera, The Lord of the Manor...

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Albert Cohen and Philippe Vendrix

(b Montpellier, Nov 5, 1688; d Paris, Jan 19, 1757). French mathematician, physicist, journalist and theorist. According to Schier his birthdate was not 11 November as stated in the Journal de Trévoux. He joined the Jesuit order on 16 October 1703 at Toulouse, where he first undertook humanistic studies and later concentrated on mathematics and philosophy. After assuming teaching responsibilities for the order in Toulouse (...

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Craig H. Russell

(c fl 1700–10). Spanish playwright. He was the most important Spanish dramatist of the early 18th century to work in the musical theatre, and may have collaborated on several productions with the composer Santiago de Murcia. It is uncertain whether he was the actor Francisco de Castro who was a member of Isabel Gertrudis’s theatre troupe in Mexico City in ...

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Richard Taruskin

(b Stettin [now Szczecin], 21 April/May 2, 1729; d Tsarskoye Selo, 6/Nov 17, 1796). Empress of Russia. She acceded in 1762 following a palace coup against her husband Peter III, and became known as ‘Catherine the Great’. Continuing the policy of her predecessors, the empresses Anna (reigned ...

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Elisabeth Cook

( b Dijon, Oct 7, 1719; d Paris, Sept 25, 1792). French writer . Educated at the Jesuit college of Dijon, he entered the marine ministry, serving as contrôleur to the West Indies from 1747 to 1759. He retired at an early age, due to ill health and on his return to France he adopted literature as his profession. The themes of his fashionable fairy stories, ...

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Alison Stonehouse

(b Dijon, Jan 13, 1674; d Paris, June 17, 1762). French dramatist. He studied law at Dijon and by 1703 was living in Paris. He became a member of the Académie Française in 1731 and was appointed theatre censor in 1735. His nine tragedies, based on subjects from classical antiquity, are melodramatic and exploit violence and romantic entanglements; they were highly regarded during his lifetime. ...

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George J. Buelow

(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On ...

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Thomas Bauman

(b Vienna, Sept 27, 1735; d Vienna, July 30, 1764). German playwright. He served as a secretary in the Viennese municipal court during his short life, and wrote a series of successful plays that developed a distinctively Viennese brand of written comedy out of local improvisatory traditions. His lone musical text, the three-act Zauberlustspiel ...

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Clive T. Probyn

(b Salisbury, July 20, 1709; d Salisbury, Dec 22, 1780). English writer and musical amateur. He was the eldest son of James Harris by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Ashley Cooper, sister of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury. He studied at Oxford and at Lincoln’s Inn, and was MP for Christchurch from ...

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Jamie C. Kassler

(d Glasgow, c1771). ?Scottish writer on the theory of music. From 1765 to 1770 he was associated with the University of Glasgow, for the chapel of which he compiled A Collection of Church-Music (Glasgow, 1766). In the same year he published by subscription the first part of a two-part treatise, the two parts together appearing as ...

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Dorothea Schröder

(b London, Oct 20, 1684; d London, June 1743). English stage designer and writer. In spite of his training as an architect, Lediard was occupied very early on with diplomatic matters. For several years he served the Duke of Marlborough and around 1720...

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( b 1695; d 1758). French courtier and diarist . His memoirs, like those of his grandfather, the marquis de Dangeau, are among the most illuminating of musical life at the French court. Given that his wife was a lady-in-waiting to the queen, Maria Leczynska, Luynes had unrivalled access to the intimacies of court life. Covering the years ...

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( b Schwäbisch Hall, Oct 16, 1689; d Schwäbisch Hall, May 22, 1768). German organist and writer on music . He began organ lessons at the age of nine with Baur, organist of St Katharina; after completing the curriculum of the local Gymnasium, he was a municipal clerk in neighbouring towns, returning later to his native city first as district clerk and then as city clerk, also becoming in ...

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(b Heidenheim, Franconia, July 25, 1711; d Warsaw, March 1778). German writer on music, physician and mathematician. He was the son of Johann Georg Mizler, court clerk to the Margrave of Ansbach at Heidenheim, and Barbara Stumpf of St Gallen. Most of his early life is chronicled in his autobiography (see ...

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(b Nieuwe Niedorp, North Holland, c1610; d Nieuwe Niedorp, 1682). Dutch amateur scientist. His manuscript notes (dated 1642–4) in a copy of Jacob Vredeman's Isagoge musice (1618; copy now in NL-LE ) suggest that this book played an important part in his music education. It is said that he also benefited from talking to Descartes when the latter was at Egmond, near Alkmaar, around ...

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Alina Nowak-Romanowicz

(b nr Warsaw, 1685; d Toruń, April 15, 1735). Polish theologian and musician of German origin . He was the son of a Protestant pastor, Marcin Olof (1658–1715), who was active mainly in Warsaw and Toruń, and was the compiler of a Polish religious folksong collection, ...

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Graham Sadler

(b Dijon, July 9, 1689; d Paris, Jan 21, 1773). French dramatist . After studying law at Besançon, in 1719 he came to Paris where he began a long and successful association with the Fair Theatres. His first work produced there, the monologue Arlequin Deucalion...