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(b Paris, 1692; d Paris, 1765). French patron and writer . He came from an old and illustrious family and pursued a military career before turning to the arts and letters and taking up archaeological research and the life of high society. His mother, a niece of Mme de Maintenon, was an excellent singer and harpsichordist who corresponded with the abbé Antonio Conti. Caylus travelled in Italy in ...

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David Johnson

(b Penicuik House, nr Edinburgh, Nov 8, 1676; d Penicuik, Oct 4, 1755). Scottish politician, composer and music patron. Born into a landed Scottish family, from 1694 to 1697 he studied law at Leiden University, where he probably had composition lessons with Jakob Kremberg. He then did a grand tour until ...

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Ferenc Bónis

(b Eisenstadt [Hung. Kismarton], Sept 7, 1635; d Eisenstadt, March 26, 1713). Hungarian composer, poet and patron of the arts. He was the son of Nikolaus (Miklós) Esterházy, palatine of Hungary. He was a pupil at the Jesuit school in Nagyszombat, where he appeared in school dramas, and later he had a brilliant career as a statesman and soldier. In ...

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Ruth Smith

(b Gopsall, Leics., 1700; d Gopsall, bur. Nether Whitacre, Warwicks., Nov 20, 1773). English patron, scholar and librettist. The grandson of a wealthy Birmingham ironmaster, he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and subsequently divided his time between London and the family estate of Gopsall, Leicestershire, which he inherited, with properties in five other counties, in ...

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John A. Rice

(b Vienna, March 13, 1741; d Vienna, Feb 20, 1790). Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria, first son of Maria Theresa and Francis of Lorraine. As a patron of music and supervisor of the court theatres in Vienna, he helped to shape the city’s operatic life. During the first part of his long reign he shared power with Maria Theresa, but even before her death in ...

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(b Chinon, Limousin, July 26, 1693; d Paris, Dec 5, 1762). French patron of music, art and literature. The son of a financier, he became a lawyer and later fermier général. The many poets, artists and musicians he befriended include Voltaire, Marmontel, the Van Loos and La Tours, Rameau and Rousseau. From about ...

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( b Breslau, June 23, 1703; d Versailles, June 24, 1768). French ruler, musician and patron of music . The daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland and Catherine Opalinska, in 1725 she married Louis XV. At Versailles, she cultivated musical and artistic talents and encouraged her daughters towards similar pursuits. She played several instruments, including the harpsichord and vielle, and also sang. According to the Duke of Luynes, she participated in evening chamber music with Farinelli and other famous musicians. In ...

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Lowell Lindgren

(b Venice, July 2, 1667; d Rome, Feb 28, 1740). Italian patron and librettist . In November 1689, a month after his grand-uncle was elected Pope Alexander VIII, he was made a cardinal and given a lifetime appointment as vice-chancellor of the Church. During the brief papacy of Alexander VIII (...

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Cuthbert Girdlestone and Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b St Cloud, Aug 2, 1674; d Versailles, Dec 2, 1723). French patron and musician . He was Duke of Chartres and (after the death of his father in 1701) Duke of Orléans, and from 1715 Regent of France. A nephew of Louis XIV, he grew up in Paris and played the flute, guitar, harpsichord and viol. He studied music with Etienne Loulié and composition with Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Nicolas Bernier and Charles-Hubert Gervais, his lifelong valet whom he appointed ...

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Elisabeth Cook

(b Paris, Dec 29, 1721; d Versailles, April 16, 1764). French patron . She married Guillaume Lenormand, Seigneur d’Etioles, in 1741 and established a popular salon frequented by such leading literary figures as Pompeo magno Voltaire, C.-L. de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu and Fontenelle. In ...

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Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, March 5, 1672; d Rome, July 12, 1731). Italian patron. After inheriting the fortunes of his father (Alessandro, Count Marescotti) and his great-uncle (Bartolomeo Ruspoli), he became, as Marquis of Cerveteri, one of the richest men in Rome. He was ‘acclaimed’ as Olinto Arsenio in the Arcadian Academy on ...

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Daniel E. Freeman

(b Lysá nad Labem or Heřmanův Městec, Bohemia, March 9, 1662; d Lysá nad Labem, March 30, 1738). Bohemian nobleman, literatus and patron of the arts. A member of one of the most prominent noble families in Bohemia, he was appointed in 1690...

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(b Frankfurt, May 6, 1687; d Frankfurt, April 10, 1769). German amateur musician. He was a member of an old Frankfurt family of prosperous tradespeople. As a student he travelled in the company of his elder brother Zacharias Conrad to Lübeck and then from Hamburg to England where they recorded their impressions of musical performances. Johann Friedrich, the more musical of the two, spent two further years studying in Strasbourg and after graduating in law in ...