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Jody Diamond

(b Bay Shore, NY, April 7, 1946). American composer, performer, instrument builder and ethnomusicologist. She received the BA from Sarah Lawrence College, and the MA and PhD from Wesleyan University, where she studied Indonesian and Indian music. She has performed with the ensembles of Philip Glass, Jon Gibson, Alvin Lucier, Philip Corner and Daniel Goode. In ...

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Botul  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Gini Gorlinski

Gong chime of the Pakpak people of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Its five to nine small bossed gongs are placed horizontally in a wooden trough, somewhat like the bonang of Central Java. Unlike the bonang, which is played by a single musician, the botul may be played by as many as three men. It is the leading melodic instrument in an ensemble that also includes three suspended gongs, ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

(b Graus, July 26, 1762; d Philippines, 1832). Spanish organ builder. He was a missionary, and on 30 January 1787 took holy orders as an Augustinian friar under the name of Diego de la Virgen del Carmen; he became organist at his monastery in Barcelona. He then travelled to Cadiz, Acapulco, and the Philippines, where he arrived on ...

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Alyson E. Jones

(b Aley, Lebanon, 1941). American musician and nāy [end-blown reed flute] maker of Lebanese birth. After studying nāy at the Lebanese Conservatory with Naim Bitar, he moved to Beirut and toured throughout the Middle East with Lebanon’s most popular folk troupe. He first came to the United States in ...

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Graham Lack

(b Karlsruhe, Feb 26, 1954). German composer, instrument builder and performer. He studied saxophone with Ariel Kalma in Paris, Indian classical music with Kamalesh Maitra in Berlin and India and the ney with Ali Reza Asgharia. Durand began constructing wind instruments, mostly built from PVC and plexiglass, in the early 1980s and performs his own music on these, as well as saxophone and ...

Article

Cheng Liu and Stewart Carter

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China, Sept 15, 1935). Erhu maker in Shanghai. He began making erhus in 1951 under the tutelage of Tang Yinpu. Since 1958 he has worked on the premises of Shanghai No. 1 National Musical Instruments Factory, where he maintains his own workshop. He makes approximately 100 professional-quality instruments per year (but does not make bows) and also serves as design consultant for the firm’s mass-produced ...

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Maribel Meisel and Edward L. Kottick

(b Cologne, Germany, Dec 10, 1919; d Barton, VT, May 25, 2002). Keyboard instrument maker of German birth. In 1938 he moved to Israel, where he trained as a cabinetmaker (1939–42) and graduated from the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music (1942...

Article

Japanese manufacturer of musical instruments. Matsujiro Hoshino founded the company in 1908 as a book and sheet music store (Hoshino Shoten) that from 1929, as Hoshino Gakki Ten, also sold guitars by Salvador Ibáñez imported from Spain. Under direction of Hoshino’s son Yoshitaro Hoshino, the company began manufacturing Ibanez-brand guitars in ...

Article

Ivor Benyon and Laura Prichard

(b Shanghai, China, Oct 17, 1925). Classical harmonica virtuoso, instrument designer, and manufacturer of Chinese birth. After immigrating to the United States in 1953 he worked for Hohner for many years, designing the first Hohner products made in the United States. These included the Professional ...

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Name given in 1897 to the firm later called Yamaha .

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Kawai  

Cyril Ehrlich and Edwin M. Good

Japanese firm of instrument makers. Founded in 1927 and incorporated in 1951, Kawai was at the end of the 20th century the second largest producer of pianos in Japan, the world’s largest producer of that instrument. Manufacture of instruments gave way to military supplies during World War II but was resumed in ...

Article

Korg  

Hugh Davies

Japanese firm of electronic instrument manufacturers. It was founded in Tokyo in 1963 by Tsutomu Katoh and the accordion player Tadashi Osanai as Keio Geijutsu Kenkyujo. From 1968 the firm became known as Keio Electronic Laboratories; although they used the brand-name Korg (‘Katoh-Osanai organ’) on the products, this became the company's official name only in the mid-1980s. Keio began by constructing rhythm units for Yamaha's Electone electronic organs, then produced its own separate units, the Doncamatic rhythm machine followed by the MiniPops series. Korg soon became one of the most successful Japanese manufacturers of electronic instruments, and produced the first Japanese synthesizer in ...

Article

Mohd. Anis Md Nor

(b Mlilir, Mediun, East Java, 1920). Javanese gamelan and kethoprak (folk theatre) performer, dalang (shadow puppeteer) and gamelan maker , active in Malaysia. He came to Malaysia at the age of 22 during World War II. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Margono was interned by the British and transferred to a Dutch army camp in Sungei Besi with other Javanese war detainees; here he was made to perform ...

Article

Henry Johnson

(b Sannomiya, Kobe, Japan, April 7, 1894; d Kariya, Aichi prefecture, Japan, June 25, 1956).Japanese musician and developer of new koto-type instruments. He was part of a modernist movement that incorporated many ideas from Western music, including instrument innovations. Miyagi, blind by the age of eight, learned a number of instruments, including ...

Article

Nancy Toff

Japanese maker of flutes and piccolos. The firm was established in 1969 by Masashi Miyazawa and is located in Asaka. In the 1970s the flute design was modified, in consultation with P.L. West of West Music, Coralville, Iowa (the firm's distributor in the USA), to suit the American market. Among the firm's innovations are the development of new alloys, such as the PCM-Silver alloy (...

Article

Nancy Toff

Japanese firm of flute and piccolo manufacturers. It was founded in 1923 by Koichi Muramatsu (b Tokyo, 12 April 1898; d 6 June 1960), then a member of a military band, who made the first Western-style flute in Japan in that year. About ...

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James Blades and James Holland

Manufacturers of gongs and cymbals . The firm originated in 1909 in St Petersburg, but in 1917 the family moved to Estonia. Owing to the prevailing political situation Michael Paiste lived for a time in China, later in New York, but at the age of 17, he returned to Estonia where he became involved in the manufacture of cymbals. His experiences in the East induced him to add the craft of gong making to the Paiste organization. In ...

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(b Brzeźce, nr Warsaw, Poland, June 29, 1875; d Warsaw, Sept 18, 1951). Polish violin maker. After completing studies at the Academy of Metrology and Hydro-engineering in Vienna, he worked as a geologist in Poland and Siberia, and after World War I in Warsaw. Interested in violin making since boyhood, he taught himself and constructed his first original violin after long acoustic studies of old Italian and Polish examples. He created two main models, Antica, referring to Classical forms, and Polonia, referring to wavy Baroque forms based on a 16th-century violin by Martin Groblicz that had a carved woman’s figurehead instead of a scroll, and a characteristic flutey sound. Panufnik recommended the Antica model for ‘coloratura’ music, and Polonia for ‘dramatic’ music. He inlaid Latin mottoes on the violins’ backs and used engraved labels....

Article

Laurence Libin

(b Izmir, Turkey, Aug 18, 1911; d New York, NY, Oct 21, 1999). Armenian luthier. To escape pogroms his family fled in 1922 to Salonika where Papazian excelled in drawing, rug design, and academic subjects, took violin lessons, and worked in his brother’s furniture business. After World War II he emigrated to Argentina where he began making instruments, including guitars, for wholesale, by copying available models. In ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Chinese instrument manufacturer, based in Guangzhou. The government-owned firm was formed in 1956 from several piano-making facilities. In the 1950s they were producing four upright pianos per month for the Chinese market. In the mid-1980s the firm was granted import and export rights. By the 1990s, liberalized economic policies coupled with relatively inexpensive raw materials and very low labour costs allowed for rapid expansion....