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Article

Sarah Adams

Archives and manuscripts constitute the “raw materials” of music history, since the foundation of much humanistic scholarship is based on the interpretation and re-interpretation of primary and secondary sources. Music archival collections and manuscripts may be found both within and outside musical organizations, such as conservatories, academic institutions, libraries, historical societies, museums, businesses, performing arts organizations, research centers, radio and television stations, government archives, and church archives....

Article

Repositories for the permanent retention, preservation, and access of sound recordings (e.g., CDs, LPs, audio cassettes, cylinders, digital audio files) and moving image media (e.g., motion-picture film, kinescope, videotape, digital video files); often included along side of these collections are the mechanical playback devices for such media. The history of archives of this kind in the United States reveals trends towards the amalgamation of sound and moving image materials into single units based either on format (e.g., Library of Congress’ Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division) or academic discipline (UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive). Traditionally the distinction between a library and an archive is essentially one of purpose and a material’s publication status: whereas libraries collect published materials for use by general patrons within and outside the library, archives generally accession and preserve unpublished materials, allowing restricted access for research purposes. However, with the development of the Internet, digitization technologies, and online modes of distribution, the distinction between library and archive hosted sound recording and moving image collections has become more fluid with both kinds of institutions posting published and unpublished audio and video files online with varying degrees of accessibility. Parallel advances in preservation technologies have also enabled archivists to digitize analog sound recordings and moving image recordings that is thought to ensure long-term, if not permanent, access to the content housed on the original analog carriers....

Article

Thane Tierney

Record company. It was originally established in Los Gatos, California, in 1960 by record collector Chris Strachwitz. The label’s first release was bluesman Mance Lipscomb’s Texas Sharecropper and Songster, of which 250 copies were originally produced. Strachwitz held down a day job as a high school teacher for the first two years of the label’s existence, supplementing his income with sales of collectible 78s. In exchange for engineering the recording session at which Country Joe McDonald first recorded “I feel like I’m fixin’ to die rag,” Strachwitz was awarded the publishing rights to the song, which was featured in the ...

Article

Arista  

Thane Tierney

American record company. It was formally established in New York, New York, by former Columbia Records chief Clive Davis in June 1974. A year to the day after having been fired from Columbia, Davis signed a deal with Columbia Pictures Industries (unrelated to his former label) to organize their music businesses, which at that time consisted mainly of the Bell label and Screen Gems Music, a publishing company. Other labels owned by the company at the time, but largely dormant, were Colgems (the successor to Colpix) and SGC....

Article

Hugh Davies

(b Kansas City, MO, Jan 23, 1940). American artist and educator, co-founder in 1989 and artistic director of Inner-City Arts in Los Angeles. He holds a BA from the Kansas City Art Institute and an MFA from the University of Cincinnati. Working in Los Angeles since ...

Article

D.W. Krummel and Bonna J. Boettcher

Music bibliography is the study and description of musical documents and of the literature about music. As a whole it entails two separate but interdependent areas of investigation. Analytical and descriptive bibliography are concerned with the study and identification of books as physical objects, and involve such matters as paper, design, typography or engraving, printing, and binding. Enumerative bibliography is concerned with access to information about musical materials and the literature of music and is usually embodied in lists that are known as “bibliographies.” Since the mid 1990s, with the continued expansion of the Internet, online bibliographies have proliferated. This article is concerned exclusively with enumerative bibliographies that cover music materials published in or otherwise distinctive to the United States, as well as the study of bibliography....

Article

Suzanne Flandreau

The Center for Black Music Research (CBMR) was founded in 1983 at Columbia College Chicago by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Its mission has remained the same since its inception: to document, preserve, and promote the music of the African Diaspora. This mission is accomplished through publications, conferences and symposia, performances, research fellowships, and the Library and Archives, housing books and research collections....

Article

Chamber music society. Resident in New York at Alice Tully Hall, the society is a constituent of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. It was conceived by William Schuman, the president of Lincoln Center, who appointed the pianist charles Wadsworth as the society’s first artistic director (...

Article

Dee Baily

Official or traditional songs sung at ceremonial, festive, or athletic events to generate enthusiasm and school spirit, or to support the school’s sports teams. They include “alma maters” (or school anthems; the Latin term alma mater, meaning “benign mother,” is frequently applied by alumni to their school or college), “fight” songs, and nostalgic songs....

Article

Jason Freeman and Frank Clark

Interdisciplinary research centre for music, computing, engineering, design, and business, founded in 2008 at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. The Center focuses on the development and deployment of transformative musical technologies, and emphasizes the impact of music technology research on scholarship, industry, and culture. In ...

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (...

Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on ...

Article

Michael D. Worthy

An archive of jazz recordings and other jazz-related materials housed by Rutgers University Libraries in Newark, New Jersey. Marshall W. Stearns, a pioneering jazz scholar, donated his personal collection and founded the Institute in 1952 to promote the growing field of jazz scholarship and research....

Article

Sarah Suhadolnik

Jazz division of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In 1987 Lincoln Center launched Classical Jazz, its first concert series devoted solely to jazz. In 1996 JALC became an autonomous jazz division with wynton Marsalis at the helm. Marsalis has continued to work as the artistic director of JALC and the music director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. This ensemble maintains an extensive repertoire of classic jazz works while continuing to commission and premiere new pieces. It tours extensively, frequently collaborating with guest artists, and participates in JALC programs, such as the annual Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition & Festival. JALC also maintains a busy schedule of concerts by visiting artists, lectures, and jazz education initiatives....

Article

Francis Kayali

Radio show and cybercast devoted to new music. Hosted by composers Dennis Báthory-Kitsz (“Kalvos”) and David Gunn (“Damian”), the show aired weekly from 1995 to 2005 on the WGDR-FM 91.1 station at Goddard College in Plainfield, Vermont. Since 2005, new K&D shows have been made available online, albeit on an occasional and irregular basis. ...

Article

Altman Kellner and Robert N. Freeman

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 777 by Duke Tassilo of Bavaria to provide a Christian mission and to protect the area from the neighbouring Slavs and Hungarians. Plainchant was sung according to the Beneventan rite, which, along with the educational system, was modified according to the rules of Benedikt von Aniane of Aachen in 828. From that time until the 17th century there was an inner and an outer school: the latter was enlarged in ...

Article

Lambach  

David Wyn Jones

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 1056 on the site of a fortress protecting the confluence of the rivers Traun and Ager, and was sanctioned by Emperor Heinrich IV in 1061. The first monks came from the monastery of Münsterschwarzach near Würzburg, and in ...

Article

Heinz Anton Höhnen

Benedictine abbey near Koblenz on the Laacher See, Germany. Its Romanesque church, built between 1092 and 1220, towers over the monastery. From the time it was founded by Count Palatine Heinrich II the monastery was inhabited by monks without a break until its dissolution in ...

Article

Melk  

Robert N. Freeman

Town in Lower Austria. The strategic location of the fortress Medelica (Melk) on a slope overlooking the Danube led the Babenbergs, Austria's medieval rulers, to establish their court there in 976. Monks from the Benedictine abbey of Lambach were invited to join the court in ...

Article

Ireneu Segarra

Benedictine monastery near Barcelona. It has been a very important centre of pilgrimages and devotion to the Virgin Mary from the 11th century. Music has played an important role in these activities especially since the foundation of the Escolanía in the 12th century. The Llibre Vermell...