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Article

Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Large single-headed frame drum of the Cham people of Vietnam. It is played in a ritual ensemble that also includes the sarunai (oboe), a pair of gaming (double-headed drums), and sometimes the ching (gong).

See also Ching (i) ; Sarunai.

Article

Bāz  

Small kettledrum of the Arab world used in religious processions, begging, and during the month of Ramadan. It is about 16 cm in diameter. Sometimes the body is of metal in the shape of an inverted bell.

Article

Bher  

Alastair Dick

Very large metal kettledrum of Sind, Pakistan. It is played standing, with two sticks, as part of the ceremonial band naubat found at the shrines of some Sindi saints (e.g. that of Shah Abdul Latif at Bhitshah). ‘Bher’ doubtless derives from the old Indian drum name ...

Article

Burburi  

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Karnataka and Andhra, south India. It is played by the mendicant devotees of the goddess Mariamman and is struck with a stick on one side and rubbed with a curved stick on the other.

Article

Alastair Dick and Andrew Alter

Small, shallow hourglass drum of Uttarakhand in northern India. Like many other hourglass drums in India, the ḍauṅr is associated with the god Shiva. For this reason it is often equated with the ḍamaru, though the instruments are of different sizes and are played differently. The ḍauṅr is usually found in the western area of Uttarakhand (Garhwal) where it is used almost exclusively for indoor shamanic rituals. It is about 16 cm tall and has a diameter of 20 cm at the heads and 13 cm at the waist; its body is made of copper, brass, or wood. The goatskin heads are lapped on hoops and braced by cotton V-lacings tightened at the waist with a cross-lacing. The bracing is not used to vary the tension of the heads during performance. The musician plays while seated, holding the instrument between his knees or under his leg; the right/upper face is struck with a curved stick, the left/lower with the hand and fingers. Thus the playing technique resembles that of the much larger ...

Article

Alan R. Thrasher

Bronze clapperless bells associated primarily with Chinese Buddhist temples. They are commonly called zhong, though properly fanzhong (‘Buddhist bells’). Most are large bells, with circular cross-section, moderately convex profile, and a dome-shaped crown typically smaller than the rim, which is often waved or scalloped. The ...

Article

Gshang  

Mireille Helffer

Tibetan shallow bell, sounded by Bön-po monks and by certain mediums. It has an internal clapper and a widely flared mouth, and somewhat resembles a small, thick cymbal to which a clapper has been added. Various types of gshang are distinguished by their sizes, which range from about 7 to 20 cm in diameter. A leather handle passes through a central hole in the top of the dome ( ...

Article

Sara Black Brown

A Vaishnava Hindu devotional movement dedicated to the worship of Krishna and known for the ecstatic singing of kirtan. The movement, formally known as the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), was established in New York by Bengali guru A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in 1966...

Article

Andrew C. McGraw

Priests’ bell of Siberut island, Mentawai, Indonesia. Traditional jejeneng accompany chant and dance and are made of buffalo horn with a clapper either of bamboo or the pincers of a crab. Nowadays priests often use metal bells, also called lonceng, to accompany urai kerei (shaman’s song). The bells are thought to encourage a sick person’s spirit to return to its body....

Article

Kading  

Small metal bell of the Muong people of Vietnam and Laos, used for the ceremony of the water buffalo sacrifice.

Article

Kochnak  

Jonathan McCollum

Handheld percussion bar of Armenia. It was similar to the semantron and was made of wood or iron, but is now obsolete. It was used to signal the hours of prayer and summon the faithful to church. The kochnak was approximately one metre long and could be either straight or semi-circular. When not in use it was suspended by chains at the top of the church interior....

Article

Christian Thodberg

A liturgical poem sung mainly at Orthros in the Byzantine rite. One of the two most important poetic forms in medieval Byzantine religious poetry (the other being the kanōn), the kontakion most likely originated in Byzantium, although a strong Syrian influence is evident, particularly the poetry of ...

Article

Flabellum used in oriental, Syrian, and Orthodox churches. See also Flabellum .

Article

Peter Jeffery

The system of the eight ‘church modes’ (the ‘musical’ oktōēchos) in the medieval Latin, Byzantine, Slavonic, Syrian, Armenian and Georgian repertories of Christian liturgical chant. Also, by association, the practice of grouping chants by mode (the ‘calendric’ oktōēchos) so that they can be sung in numerical order over a period of time, usually one mode per week, proceeding to the next higher number each Sunday and beginning with the 1st mode again when the 8th is completed. And a book (the ‘liturgical’ ...

Article

Korean operatic form probably dating from the early 18th century. See Korea, §II, 5 .

Article

Terry E. Miller

In Cambodia, the primary classical ensemble played at court ceremonies, some Buddhist festivals, to accompany the large shadow theatre, masked drama, and dance drama. Both the ensemble and its name are closely related to similar ensembles in Thailand (piphat) and Laos (sep nyai/piphat...

Article

Ramshā  

An Office of the Syrian Churches, corresponding to Vespers. See Syrian church music, §3.

Article

Rei  

Small Buddhist handbell, the only common bell with a clapper of traditional Japanese music. The Chinese equivalent is the ling. With its flared mouth the rei resembles a Swiss handbell, but the bell and handle are cast in a single piece. The end of the handle is shaped to resemble a closed talon, representing the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Sacred conch horn of India and South Asia. It is the equivalent of the sak of Sri Lanka and the dung of Tibet. The shell is that of the large gastropod Turbinella pyrum, found particularly in the waters of the south (Gulf of Mannar, northern Sri Lanka, Kerala) but also off Kathiawar, Gujarat. The Sanskrit name ...

Article

Sedrā  

A category of Syrian chant. See Syrian church music, §3.