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Article

Edward Foley and Joseph Dyer

A corporate shout or public cry of affirmation or dissent; also in a religious context a fervent expression of praise, invocation or supplication. Common to many performative contexts across a broad range of traditions and at times accompanied by gestures, acclamations became particularly important in political and religious rituals in East and West. Originating as spontaneous calls, some evolved into standardized formulae with fixed texts, occasionally with set music....

Article

Birgitta J. Johnson

The oldest and largest black Methodist denomination in the world, with approximately four million members in the United States and abroad. The first independent African American Christian denomination, it was founded by Richard Allen and other former members of St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Allen and Absalom Jones had formed the Free African Society in ...

Article

The second-largest black Methodist denomination, with 1.4 million members in the United States and abroad. The first AMEZ congregation was organized in New York in 1796. Its members were African Americans who left the John Street Methodist Episcopal Church due to rising racial discrimination, especially in worship, from the predominantly white members of the congregation. Similar circumstances had previously led Richard Allen and the black Methodists in Philadelphia to found the ...

Article

John Koegel

(b Puerto Príncipe, Cuba, ?Nov 28, 1844; d Havana, ?Dec 31, 1918). Pianist, music teacher, arranger, conductor, composer, and lawyer of Cuban birth, naturalized American. Born into a prominent family in Puerto Príncipe, Cuba (present-day Camagüey), Agramonte strongly supported the movement for independence from Spain. He studied music and the law in Cuba, Spain, and France. After vocal studies with Enrico Delle Sedie (...

Article

In the Byzantine Divine Liturgy, the equivalent of the alleluia verse of the Roman Mass. According to medieval descriptions of the Byzantine rite, the allēlouïa was preceded by the chanted announcement of the psaltēs: ‘Allēlouïa, a psalm of David’. The psaltēs then sang ‘allēlouïa’ to one of six non-melismatic melodies, followed by the ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Christian Thodberg

Chant of the Mass in the Western Church and of the Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Church.

The alleluia of the Mass is a Proper chant sung during the Fore-Mass after the gradual (see Gradual) except on liturgical occasions associated with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on ones associated with sorrow (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be replaced by the ...

Article

Alleluiatic antiphons sung at Matins and Vespers in the Mozarabic rite. See Mozarabic chant, §3, (ii).

Article

A term denoting Psalms cxlviii–cl when sung in the liturgy in the Gallican rite. See Antiphon, §1, and Gallican chant.

Article

One of the four Marian antiphons retained at the Council of Trent and ordered to be sung at the end of Compline from the first Sunday of Advent to the Purification (2 February). It is now sung as a self-contained item, but originally it preceded and followed the chanting of a psalm or canticle. In the light of recent scholarship, the traditional ascription of the words and music to ...

Article

Edward Higginbottom

A term commonly used to describe the manner in which alternate sections of certain liturgical items were performed by distinct and normally dissimilar forces. The practice had its roots in the antiphonal psalmody of the early Western church. One of its first characteristic manifestations was in the performance of responsorial chants (e.g. gradual, alleluia) where the soloists (...

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A term used in the Rule of St Benedict for the hymns composed by St Ambrose; see also Antiphon, §1; Benedictine monks, §2; Hymn, §II, 1.

Article

Amen  

Geoffrey Chew, Edward Foley and Joseph Dyer

A word of affirmation, often employed as a cultic acclamation by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In the Old Testament ‘Amen’ commonly seals commands, blessings, curses, doxologies, and prayers. While used in non-liturgical settings (1 Kings i.36), it frequently functioned as a ritual response in prayer (Psalm xli.13). Its importance as a cultic response is underlined by texts noting explicitly that the people are to say ‘Amen’ (Psalm cvi.48, ...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

In the Byzantine rite, a set of three or four short antiphons to the gradual psalms (verses from Psalms cxix–cxxx and cxxxii) sung at Sunday Orthros . There is a set for each of the eight modes. Although they were compiled in the 8th century, probably by Theodore of Stoudios (...

Article

James W. McKinnon

A reader in the Orthodox Church. His function is to announce the Prokeimenon of the day and to chant the appropriate lessons from the Old Testament or the Epistles (see Ekphōnēsis). The related term ‘anaginōskos’ (Gk.: ‘reader’) already appears in the description by Justin Martyr (...

Article

A kalophonic (‘embellished’) setting of certain Byzantine stichēra (see Stichēron) used on festal occasions. Only a part of the hymn text is used, and this is preceded and followed by very florid teretismata; see Kalophonic chant.

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The word ‘Anglican’ refers primarily to the Church of England, a moderately protestant state church established in 1549, and secondarily to a number of daughter churches founded in former British colonies and other countries around the world. The word ‘Episcopal’ or ‘Episcopalian’ was adopted by churches, such as those in Scotland and the USA, that espoused theological and liturgical principles similar to those of the Church of England but owed no allegiance to it as the English state church....

Article

Peter Le Huray and John Harper

Harmonized formulae used for the singing of psalms and canticles in the liturgy of the Church of England. A single chant ( ex.1 ) comprises two sections, paralleling the bipartite psalm or canticle verse to which it is sung; the initial chord in each half is the ‘reciting’ chord to which a substantial part of the verse section is freely sung. The first half of the chant is concluded by a progression of between three and five chords, the second half by a progression of between five and nine chords. These are invariably measured out in semibreve, minim and crotchet values, the first comprising three bars, the second, four. Double chants repeat the single chant formula once, and quadruple chants repeat it three times, being sung to two and four psalm or canticle verses respectively (triple chants are occasionally used). There are many ways of ‘pointing’ or fitting the words to these chants, and various systems of symbols are used to indicate how this may be done; in the following examples the barring is equivalent to the barring of the chant: The pointed psalters that are most commonly used are ...

Article

A Mass chant in the Mozarabic rite, corresponding to the communion of the Roman rite. See Mozarabic chant, §4, (xiii) .

Article

In the early Latin Christian rites, a part of the Mass Proper sung during the Fraction. See Ambrosian chant, §7, (i); Gallican chant, §7, (xiii) ; and Mozarabic chant, §4, (xii) .

Article

A processional chant sung at Matins in the Ambrosian rite. See Ambrosian chant, §6, (ii).