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Sven Hansell and Robert L. Kendrick

(b Milan, Oct 17, 1720; d Milan, Jan 19, 1795). Italian composer. As a girl she performed in her home while her elder sister Maria Gaetana (1718–99; she became a distinguished mathematician) lectured and debated in Latin. Charles de Brosses, who heard them on ...

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E. Eugene Helm and Darrell Berg

(b Dobitschen, Saxe-Altenburg, Jan 4, 1720; d Berlin, Dec 2, 1774). German musicographer, composer, organist, singing master and conductor. His father occupied an important post as government agent and jurist in Dobitschen. Burney, who visited the Agricolas in 1772, reported that Johann Friedrich’s mother, born Maria Magdalena Manke, ‘was a near relation of the late Mr Handel, and in correspondence with him till the time of his death’; but later Handel research has failed to substantiate this claim....

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Edward H. Tarr

(b Weissenfels, June 15, 1734; d Bitterfeld, May 14, 1801). German trumpeter, organist and teacher. Son of Johann Caspar Altenburg, he was sworn into apprenticeship by his father at two years of age and was released from his articles as a trumpeter 16 years later. Because of the decline of Baroque social order, however, he was never able to find a position as a trumpeter. He became a secretary to a friend of his father's, a royal Polish stablemaster, then studied the organ and composition with Johann Theodor Römhild in Merseburg until ...

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Roger J.V. Cotte

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...

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Philip H. Peter

(b c1729; d London, Aug 3, 1798). English bassoonist and teacher, probably of German birth. He was in England at least as early as 1750, when he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians. In 1754 and 1758 he took part in the Foundling Hospital performances of ...

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(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (...

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Elizabeth Keitel

(b Vernon, Eure, March 31, 1722; d after 1779). French violinist, composer and teacher. He was the son of Nicole Picot and Antoine Branche, a dancing-master and possibly the musician who was active in Lyons in 1732. In 1748 Branche dedicated his Première livre de sonates à violon seul et basse...

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(b Versailles, Feb 5, 1754; d Paris, March 4, 1811). French cellist, teacher and engraver, son of Jean-Baptiste Chrétien. He gained the survivance of his father’s position as a cellist in the chambre du roi in 1760, and after the Revolution was a musician at Napoleon’s court. He had the reputation of a brilliant though expressionless performer. As a teacher of cello and solfège, he was well in advance of his time. He valued a child-like spontaneous invention over the traditional scholastic rudiments, promoted a strictly tempered tuning and was the first to recommend audio-visual methods. His novel vocabulary was undoubtedly misunderstood by his contemporaries, who showed little enthusiasm for his theories. Many of his ideas were expressed in his posthumously published ...

Article

Alan Tyson and Leon Plantinga

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and teacher, music publisher and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicolo Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena, née Kaiser, Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (...

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Sven Hansell and Kay Lipton

(b Venice, c1730; d Venice, after 1794). Italian singer, teacher, and composer. DeMezzo specialized in serious operatic roles and sang sacred music. Although described as both a baritone and a tenor in contemporary writings, he was often classified as a tenor, singing roles that exploited his ability to execute coloratura passages. Some of his roles were also notated in tenor clef instead of bass clef. In Pampani’s ...

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(b mid-18th century; d Paris, 1815). French composer, dancer and teacher. He first acquired fame as a dancer. He danced at least once at the Comédie-Française in 1762 and was ballet-master there by 1764; he was an adjoint at the Opéra in 1774...

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(b Picardy, France, c1766; d Charleston, SC, Feb 25, 1831). French pianist, teacher, and music retailer. DeVillers immigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, by December 1795, when he is known to have concertized as a pianist with a number of other recently arrived French refugee musicians. Over the next two decades he appeared frequently in concert, especially as a concerto soloist. He joined a number of other professional musicians in forming Charleston’s Philharmonic Society in ...

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(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than ...

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Ruth M. Wilson and Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Eschwege, Germany, Nov 24, 1757; d Charleston, SC, Nov 10, 1833). Organist, pianist, composer, and teacher of German birth. He came to the United States as a musician with Hessian troops. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Richmond, Virginia, where he probably was organist at St. John’s Episcopal Church. He moved to Charleston in ...

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Richard Jackson

(b Paris, France, 1781; d New York, NY, Jan 17, 1859). American pianist, teacher, and conductor. He was a student of François-Adrien Boieldieu and Charles-Simon Catel and recipient of the first prize in both piano and accompaniment at the Paris Conservatoire in 1800...

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Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Brussels, Belgium, April 8, 1756; d United States, c1820). American flemish violinist, composer, and pedagogue active in England and the United States. After touring France and Germany he was from about 1780 a violin virtuoso in London, where he published two instrumental instruction books; a theoretical treatise on harmony, counterpoint, and figured bass; various string quartets, trios, and duos; and theatrical pieces for the Royal Circus and the Royal Grove (...

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Philippe Vendrix

(b Brussels, April 8, 1756; d USA, after 1795). Flemish violinist, composer and teacher, active in England and the USA. At the age of 11 he was presented to Prince Charles of Lorraine, then staying in Brussels. He was entrusted to the care of Pierre van Maldere, whose early death did not, however, interrupt his apprenticeship; he continued to be supported by Charles of Lorraine until ...

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(b Sedlec, nr Sedlčany, Dec 3, 1758; d Vienna, April 13, 1825). Czech composer, pianist and piano teacher. He studied music at Sedlec and at the Jesuit college at Svatá Hora, near Příbram. At Prague, where he attended the university, he studied the organ and composition with J.N. Seger, whom he also assisted as organist. In ...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b ?England, 1770; d Philadelphia, PA, Sept 16, 1826). American violinist, conductor, music teacher, and composer. He was active in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York from 1793 to 1826. He is said to have played at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in ...

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Ludwig Finscher and Giacomo Fornari

(b Livorno, c1760; d Florence, after 1818). Italian composer and conductor. He studied in Florence with Pietro Nardini (violin) and Bartolomeo Felici (counterpoint), and from 1783 to 1798 led the orchestra at the Teatro degli Intrepidi there. He also lectured in music and declamation at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, where one of his pupils was the composer Ferdinando Giorgetti. He was apparently based in Florence for the rest of his life....