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Article

Anthony Seeger

This article examines the musical traditions of North and South America. The two continents, joined by a land bridge and embracing the Caribbean islands, present a multitude of genres and styles performed in a complex network of contexts by communities of diverse cultural and religious backgrounds. The regions, and often the countries, are often described separately (e.g. Chase, ...

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Ron Pen

Appalachia is the inextricable union of a place and a people bound in a vibrant but invisible web of culture specific to the Appalachian Mountains. While there is the physical reality of a mountain range, the concept of “Appalachia” as a region is a synthetic construct that developed towards the end of the 19th century. The borders of this region are fluid and subject to continuous interpretation and negotiation. Mountains are not constrained by political boundaries; identity is engendered by geography and culture. A highly inclusive definition based on economics formulated by the Appalachian Regional Commission in ...

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Region of south-west France with an important and distinctive repertory of both monophonic and polyphonic music in the Middle Ages. See Antiphoner, §3(iii) ; Gallican chant; Gradual, §4, (ii); Notation, §III, 1, (iv), (a); Organum, §7; Reproaches; St Martial; Sequence, §2; Tonary; Trope .

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An earth bow or Ground harp .

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Bactria  

Ancient civilization in Central Asia. It flourished in the last three centuries bce in the area now covered by northern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and southern Turkmenistan. See Iran, §II.

Article

W.E. Yates

A term used of the culture of German-speaking Europe between the Treaty of Vienna (1815) and 1848, the year of revolutions. It is associated especially with southern Germany and with the Austria of Metternich, the architect of political stability in post-Napoleonic Europe. The term is borrowed from the name of a fictional schoolmaster created in the early 1850s by Ludwig Eichrodt (...

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Bohemia  

Region of central Europe, now part of the Czech Republic.

Article

Nancy R. Ping-Robbins, Marie Kroeger and John Brackett

A group of cities in North Carolina that includes Raleigh, the state capital (pop. 403,892; 2010 US Census), Durham (pop. 228,330; 2010 US Census), and Chapel Hill (pop. 49,919; 2010 US Census). The metropolitan area (pop. 1,742,816; 2010 US Census) is often referred to as the “Research Triangle” or “The Triangle,” owing to the presence of numerous businesses and industries in the area as well as many colleges and universities, notably the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Duke University in Durham, and North Carolina State University in Raleigh. Throughout its history, the Triangle region has fostered and supported a diverse array of vibrant musical communities performing in a variety of musical styles, including chamber and orchestral music, opera and choral groups and societies, gospel, jazz, folk, blues, rock, hip hop, bluegrass, and country. Touring regional and international performers attract large audiences at the RBC Center and the Time Warner Cable Music Pavilion at Walnut Creek in Raleigh, the Durham Performing Arts Center (DPAC), Memorial Hall in Chapel Hill, as well as numerous smaller halls, clubs, and bars throughout the area....

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Crete  

Ioannis Papadatos

The largest and most populous of the Greek islands. Its traditional music (kritiki paradosiaki mousiki) constitutes one of the richest and most distinctive oral repertories in Greece, well differentiated from mainland and other island idioms, and well supported by a long-established music industry....

Article

Caroline Polk O’meara

A collection of Manhattan neighborhoods south of 14th Street, several of which—including Greenwich Village, SoHo, and the Lower East Side—have fostered musical movements in the post-war era. The terms “downtown music” and “music downtown” have been used to refer to different genres—including popular, jazz, avant-garde, and concert music, among others—but they also often indicate the ways such categories have become increasingly blurred since the 1970s....

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David W. Hughes and Stephen Jones

East Asia will here be defined mainly as China, People’s Republic of (both the People's Republic and the Republic of China on Taiwan), Japan and Korea. This survey seeks to outline some general similarities and differences within this broad area, restricting itself for practical reasons to the majority cultures of each country. For more detailed discussions of these and the region’s minority cultures, see the relevant country article....

Article

Færoes  

Pandora Hopkins

Archipelago of 18 inhabited volcanic islands in the North Sea between Iceland and Scotland with a total area of 1399 square km and a population of about 45,000. Independent linguistic and musical traditions are maintained despite a lengthy history of political domination, first by Norway and then by Denmark (the islands achieved home rule in ...

Article

Guam  

Raymond F. Kennedy, Cynthia B. Sajnovsky and Barbara B. Smith

The southernmost of the Marianas Islands and the largest island in Micronesia; its area is 541 sq. km. It became a port of call for the Spanish Manila Galleon, an annual expedition from 1565 to 1815 between the Philippines and Mexico. In 1899, after the end of the Spanish colonial administration, Guam became an American naval base and later a territory of the United States. The population of Guam (180,692 in US Census ...

Article

Irén Kertész Wilkinson

The music of itinerant groups, predominantly found in Europe but also in other areas, such as the Middle East and South Asia. Most often classified as ‘Gypsy’ – once a derogatory term but more recently the source of political pride – these groups also have their own ethnonyms. The main focus of this article is the music of Roma/Gypsies in Europe, with the aim of underlining similar patterns in their musical practices and processes, that reflect their shared values and ethos. For the music of non-European Gypsies, see under the appropriate country article....

Article

Ana Ryker, Harrison Ryker and Joanna C. Lee

Territory on the south-east coast of China. It was a British crown colony from 1842 to 1997, when it reverted to Chinese control. The present special Adminstrative Region comprises Hong Kong Island, Kowloon peninsula and the New Territories on the mainland, and adjacent islands.

In the 19th century Hong Kong was a sparsely populated trading outpost, and the Western and Chinese populations were largely segregated. Cantonese Opera had been presented in the countryside from as far back as ...

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Kostas Kardamis

Group of seven islands in the west coast of Greece comprising Corfu (Kerkyra), Paxos, Lefkada, Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Ithaca (Ithaki), Zante (Zakynthos), and Kythira. From the 12th century the islands came gradually under Frankish rule, but their social and cultural formulation was a result of the Venetian administration, which did not begin at the same time for all the islands. After the abolishment of the Venetian Republic (...

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Fenella Bazin

Island located in the Irish Sea, off the north-west coast of England.

Manx music has been shaped by the Isle of Man's unique political status and its position at the cultural crossroads of the British Isles. Manx Celts had been Christian for nearly 400 years before the arrival in about 800 ...

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Jabera  

Flamenco-style song form of Andalusian origin. See Flamenco.

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The part of Borneo belonging to the Republic of Indonesia. See Indonesia, §VII, 1.

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Rreze Kryeziu

In the middle of the 20th century art music began to flourish in Kosovo. After World War II the Kosovo-Albanian ethnic group shared the fate of other peoples from the former Yugoslavian state. However, this period also saw the creation of favourable economic, political, and social circumstances for the professional development of art music as an important aspect of cultural life....