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Parisian institution, founded in 1672 for the performance of opera, and identical with the Paris Opéra. See Paris, §III, 3; Paris, §IV, 3; Paris, §VI, 3.

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Norma Coates

A free outdoor music festival organized and headlined by the Rolling Stones that took place on 6 December 1969. Goaded by the music press to put on a free show in the wake of the recent Woodstock festival and unprecedentedly high ticket prices for their own shows, the group quickly and haphazardly arranged the festival. The remote Altamont Speedway in the scrubland northeast of San Francisco was used after attempts to hold it at more congenial spots fell through. Possibly at the suggestion of the Grateful Dead’s manager, the Stones hired some members of San Francisco Hells Angels, the notorious motorcycle gang, to work security. Over 300,000 people flocked to the desolate place on a wintry day. Violence, primarily attacks by the Hells Angels on audience members and musicians, began almost immediately, and culminated in the murder of a young African-American man, Meredith Hunter. Documentarians Albert and David Maysles captured Hunter’s knifing at the hands of a Hells Angel, and the rest of the day’s dysfunction and violence in their film ...

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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (...

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Miloš Velimirović

Semi-autonomous monastic ‘republic’ comprising numerous Greek and other Christian monastic communities. It is located on a peninsula of the same name, east of Thessaloniki in northern Greece; the peninsula is also known as the ‘Holy Mountain’ (Hagion oros) or the ‘Garden of the All-Holy Virgin’. Since the Middle Ages, and especially since the fall of Constantinople in ...

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Alexandra M. Apolloni

Located at 1619 Broadway in New York, the Brill Building housed the offices of some of the most commercially successful songwriters, producers, and music publishers working between the late 1950s and mid-1960s. The term “Brill Building” additionally has become a descriptor embracing a wide range of popular musical styles that were being created in New York in the early 1960s, including girl groups, bubblegum pop, vocal doo-wop, Latin pop, and soul. In addition to ...

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Bristol  

Betty Matthews, Ian Stephens, Jill Tucker and John Snelson

City and seaport. It is located on the west coast of England, near the junction of the River Avon and River Frome. It was at the height of its prosperity, which was reflected in its musical life, in the mid-18th century. A festival of St Cecilia on ...

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Joanne Sheehy Hoover and Suzanne L. Moulton-Gertig

Summer school for harpists. Carlos Salzedo established the school in 1931, and until his death in 1961 taught up to 40 students twice per week. He expected students to adhere to a strict dress code and spend most of their time practicing. He left his colony and house to a former student, Alice Chalifoux (...

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Casinos  

Janis L. McKay

The word casino originally referred to small garden houses that were used for music and table games in Europe; over time, it came to mean any building in which gambling took place. Historically, hotel casino owners have used musical entertainment to draw tourists to their locations, in the hope that before and after the performance guests will spend time gambling. Casinos vary greatly in size and design, from small ones located on remote Native American reservations to large mega-resorts found in Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and on reservations located near major cities....

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Martha Furman Schleifer

A commemorative exhibition established by Act of Congress on 3 March 1871, officially called the “International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine.” Marking the centennial of the Declaration of Independence, it took place in Philadelphia from 10 May to 10 November 1876...

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Linda Whitesitt

Voluntary associations of professional and amateur musicians. Music clubs have had a profound impact on the modern institutions and practices of American musical life that arose in the decades spanning the turn of the 20th century. Emerging after the Civil War and as part of the long tradition of 19th-century women’s organizations, most of these music clubs were founded by women to offer women musicians the opportunity to study music and perform for each other. By ...

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E. Ron Horton

Nightclub. It was originally located on the corner of 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue in Harlem, New York. One of the most extravagant and well known entertainment venues in the world during the 1920s and 1930s, it was both a springboard for the music careers of its African American stars and an adherent to the Jim Crow racial policies that divided the United States in the early 20th century. It first opened its doors as a cabaret called Club Deluxe in ...

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Cres  

Stanislav Tuksar

The largest settlement on the largest island (of the same name) in the Adriatic sea, seat of the municipality with about 3000 inhabitants. Today’s main economic activities consist of tourism, shipbuilding, fishing, and agriculture. Cres was originally populated by the Illyrian tribe of Liburns; later came the ancient Roman fortress (Crexa, Crepsa). From the 9th to 15th centuries it was within the Croatian Kingdom; from ...

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Caroline Polk O’meara

A collection of Manhattan neighborhoods south of 14th Street, several of which—including Greenwich Village, SoHo, and the Lower East Side—have fostered musical movements in the post-war era. The terms “downtown music” and “music downtown” have been used to refer to different genres—including popular, jazz, avant-garde, and concert music, among others—but they also often indicate the ways such categories have become increasingly blurred since the 1970s....

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Stanley Sadie

Swedish opera house on Lake Mälaren, just outside Stockholm, in the Swedish royal palace. The first theatre there was built in 1754; it burnt down in 1762 and was replaced by a larger building, designed by C.F. Adelcrantz and completed in 1766, with changes in ...

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Russell P. Getz and Denise A. Seachrist

A communal society of German immigrants located 65 miles from Philadelphia. Ephrata was founded in 1732 under the leadership of Georg Conrad Beissel (1691–1768) on two main religious concepts: celibacy and Sabbatarianism. The religious observances held at Ephrata were similar to those of the Dunkers (the Church of the Brethren): baptism by total immersion three times (trine immersion), feetwashing (a symbolic act of humility performed during communion), and the observance of the love feast (the sharing of a common meal symbolic of Christian fellowship and charity)....

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László Somfai

Palace in west Hungary in the village now called Fertőd. From 1766 to 1790 it was the summer residence of Haydn's employer Prince Nikolaus Esterházy ‘the Magnificent’. The Süttör hunting lodge, designed by A.E. Martinelli, was erected at the southern end of the Neusiedler (Fertő) Lake in ...

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Meredith Eliassen

The music and songs of the (California) Gold Rush in San Francisco reflected the sorrows and hard luck of residents who failed to find fortunes in California’s gold fields and faced mortality far from loved ones. The newspaper Alta California observed in 1851, “Birds of a feather flock together,” describing San Francisco as a miniature world where music reflected nearly “every country on the face of the earth.” A few short blocks from the Latin Quarter lay the heart of Chinatown. Streets reverberated with the bustling rhythms of landfill machinery used to reshape the geography of San Francisco’s waterfront and the transient movement of boardinghouse dwellers dodging firestorms, shanghaiers, and outbreaks of cholera....

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Paul R. Laird

State-supported university founded in Lawrence in 1866. A Department of Music was established within the School of Fine Arts in 1884. Dance was part of the department from 1985 until 2009, when a free-standing School of Music was formed. In the fall of 2009, the School of Music had 300 undergraduates, 220 graduate students, and nearly 60 full- and part-time instructors. It offers the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in performance, theory, composition, music education, musicology, and music therapy, and a combined BFA degree in theatre and vocal music. The Department of Music founded the long-standing Midwestern Music Camp in the summer of ...

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Robert Copeland

The oldest primarily choral music festival in the United States. Held on two weekends in May, the festival was established in 1873 under the direction of Theodore Thomas. German singing societies had earlier laid a strong foundation of choral singing in the city. In 1871...

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Claude Conyers

New York dance hall. This second-floor dance hall on the corner of Broadway and West 53rd Street in New York City became famous as a center of Latin music and dancing from 1948 until 1966. Owned by Maxwell Hyman, the Palladium had been successful during the big band era, but by ...