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Sally Sanford

Vocal technique of high-pitched sustained wailing or howling with a trilling aspect involving rapid movement of the tongue and uvula. Ululation is practised usually by women in many Arab, African, and Asian cultures. It is associated with celebrations such as weddings, and with grieving. It is used in worship in Eritrean and Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Ululation is also part of audience participation in music of the Shona in Zimbabwe. Western singers such as Joan La Barbera have incorporated ululation into their extended vocal techniques. See ...

Article

Laurence Libin

Five-string viola introduced by Friedrich Hillmer of Leipzig (later Berlin) before 1800. The young violinist and singer Friederike Klinsing studied with Hillmer and in 1815 performed together with him, using the violalin. It was still being played in public by his son Joseph in 1840...

Article

Laurence Libin

Type of mandolin with violin- or viola d’amore-shaped body. Said to have been invented and patented in Paris about 1900 by Georges Contal (b, Mirecourt, 19 April 1874) and made in a range of sizes, the violaline has four pairs of fretted strings like a mandolin’s, but supposedly a quieter sound. Violalines bearing the label and patent mark of Jérôme Thibouville-Lamy appear to date from about ...

Article

Sally Sanford

Unvoiced vocalization technique involving a slight adduction of the vocal folds but not enough to create pitch, while still using the articulation of normal speech. Activity in the abductor muscles (the posterior cricoarytenoid) is increased in order to prevent vocal fold vibration. There is a smaller supralaryngeal aperture than in speech, creating constriction in the larynx....

Article

Laurence Libin

Imitation or representation of animal forms in instrument design. Included under this heading is anthropomorphism, referring to human body forms. Zoomorphism appears in all areas of material culture, but sound adds an important dimension to the practice. Musical instruments of many kinds can be made to resemble animals or humans, or parts of them. These forms serve decorative, symbolic, magical, acoustical, structural, and other purposes. Worldwide since prehistory, many instruments, especially those used in rituals, have been constructed of animal parts or whole animals, or made in the shapes of animals, deities, or monsters whose ‘voices’ and powers the instruments evoke. Animal components such as hollowed horns, bones, and shells lend themselves readily to instrument fabrication, so it is not surprising that recognizable cattle and goat horns (the latter for the ...

Article

Brian Locke

(b March 29, 1916, Blatná, Bohemia; d Nov 25, 1983, Bonn).Czech accordionist, composer, and bandleader. He was a leading performer and songwriter of Czech swing in the 1940s. Raised in Slaný near Prague, he began teaching himself accordion in the early 1930s, imitating British and American jazz recordings. In late ...

Article

(b Rochester, NY, June 13, 1885; d New York, May 11, 1941). American composer and conductor. Born into a musical family, Bradford studied scoring and conducting with Tali Esen Moran at the Great Auditorium in Ocean Grove, New Jersey. He earned a reputation as a skilled orchestra conductor, directing various ensembles, including the Ogden Crane School of American Opera (...

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Robert Thompson

(fl Oxford, 1639; bur. St Mary Magdalen, Oxford, April 8, 1680).English musical entrepreneur, organist, copyist, and composer. Before 1639, when he was appointed organist of St John’s College, Oxford, and awarded the degree of B. Mus, nothing definite is known about him; a statement in ...

Article

Joseph Auner

(b Chicago, Feb 13, 1929).American composer and theorist. With parental roots in Germany and Austria, Gamer grew up in a rich artistic and intellectual milieu, with piano and composition lessons starting at the age of seven. His collection From My Youth includes 50 pieces composed between the ages of eight and 18. Gamer received the BM from Northwestern University and the MM from Boston University, where his teachers included Frank Cookson and ...

Article

Peter Graff

(b Riverside, NJ, Oct 10, 1967). American film, television, and video game composer. Giacchino initially began his formal studies in film production at New York’s School of Visual Arts. Upon graduating in 1990, he worked for Universal Studios’ publicity department and later with Disney, which encouraged his musical training at the Juilliard School and the University of California, Los Angeles. While working as an assistant producer at Disney Interactive, Giacchino began submitting compositions for the video games being produced by the Disney subdivision. His subsequent work in video games includes two successful franchises, ...

Article

Paul Griffiths

(b Birmingham, Aug 1, 1956; d Paxton Dene, June 26, 2001). British composer. He studied composition with Anthony Gilbert at the RNCM (1975–9) and privately with Bill Hopkins, whose adherence to Barraqué was important to his sense of the gravity of the artistic endeavour, though Boulez was the more powerful influence on the remarkable works of his student years. His bold Concerto for Groups of Instruments won a Royal Philharmonic Society prize in ...

Article

Peter Graff

(b Allentown, PA, Feb 15, 1878; d New York, Oct 2, 1937). American composer, conductor, and film music journalist. In 1892 he moved to New York and quickly found work as a trumpet player at Niblo’s Garden. Years later in 1909, Luz became pianist at Loew’s Broadway Theater and, by March ...

Article

Peter Graff

(b New York, March 13, 1894; d New York, May 23, 1975). American composer, conductor, and violinist. Mendoza began his music training on violin at the age of seven with Franz Kreisel. He continued his studies at the Institute of Musical Art with Rubin Goldmark and Percy Goetschius. As a violinist, Mendoza was concertmaster of the Russian Symphony Orchestra (New York), the New York Symphony Orchestra, and later the Victor Talking Machine Orchestra. Mendoza entered the film industry in ...

Article

Beverly Wilcox

A multi-movement setting of a Latin liturgical text, usually drawn from the Psalms, for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. Many were written for the French royal chapel, and others were composed for cathedrals in the provinces and for public concerts in Paris. The term ‘grand choeur’, which was not applied to this genre before ...

Article

Sofia Kontossi

(b Athens, Greece, May 4, 1978).Greek composer. He studied composition in Greece with theodore antoniou (2002–6), computer-aided composition (Bachelor, Université Paris 8, 2005), as well as composition (2008) and electro-acoustic music composition (2009) at the Blanc-Mesnil Conservatory with ...

Article

Brian Locke

(b Prague, Oct 8, 1911; d Prague, Feb 25, 1986).Czech bandleader. He was one of the most important Czech bandleaders of big-band swing from the 1940s until his death; his career spanned the entire period of Nazi occupation and almost four decades of Communism....

Article

Brian Locke

(b Prague, Aug 14, 1914; d Prague, May 23, 2000).Czech popular vocalist. She was one of the most iconic female voices of swing during the Nazi Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Largely self-taught, she learned by imitating foreign singers who toured through Bratislava. Her first engagements came in August ...

Article

likely from Aversa in the Campania region of Italy. He is best known from the frequent references made in the Ars cantus mensurabilis mensurata per modos iuris by Coussemaker’s Anonymous 5. This author describes Nicolaus as a Celestine monk, naming him ‘Frater’; the Celestines were a branch of the Benedictine order. He is largely associated with certain notational intricacies of the ‘ars subtilior’ style: complicated rhythms conveyed with void, coloured, or complex new note shapes. According to Anonymous 5, Nicolaus critiqued one ‘Cecchus de Florentia’ (the ‘blind one of Florence’, thus Francesco Landini), for his incorrect use of red semibreves in minor prolation, while Nicolaus himself used the dotted semibreve. The treatise does not name specific works that use any of these notational features, a regrettable omission since none of Nicolaus’s compositions are known today. Anonymous 5 does cite a setting of the Credo by Nicolaus for its use of ...

Article

Travis D. Stimeling

Celebrated for his cinematic storytelling and poetic economy, Guy Clark was a leading country and Americana songwriter who flourished during the mid- to late 1980s. Born in the small west Texas town of Monahans, Clark spent his formative years along the Gulf Coast in Rockport, Texas. When he was a young teen, Clark’s mother introduced him to contemporary American poetry, and a family friend taught him about flamenco and classical guitar; both were significant influences throughout his life. After desultory university studies and an aborted plan to join the Peace Corps, Clark joined the flourishing Houston folk music scene, where he met Houston Folklore Society president John Lomax, Jr, blues musicians Lightnin’ Hopkins and Mance Lipscomb, and songwriter and lifelong friend ...

Article

Hana Vlhová-Wörner

and a leading author of liturgical poetry during the period of rising patriotic feelings in Bohemia. Several sequences to Bohemian patron saints appearing after 1300 are attributed to his authorship, among them De superna hierarchia to Corpus Christi (with acrostic DOMAZLAUS PREDICATOR) and Dulce melos cum concentu...