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Article

François Turellier

Fontaine. Although he no longer had a royal patron, Morin continued to compose, including hunting fanfares (published by Serré de Rieux in Les dons … poëmes dédiés au roy , 1734 ), airs , cantatas (lost) and funeral music (also lost). Like Serré de Rieux, he admired Handel's Italian operas. He was also interested in the theatre and poetry, reading Jesuit and Jansenist literature with equal interest, as well as the French edition of the Whig periodical The Spectator ( Le spectateur ). He died in the rue Simon Lefranc, where he had been the neighbour of the convent bursar

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

Reviser Thomas G. MacCracken and Paul L. Ranzini

celebrating the Battle of Marignano, Exalta regina Galliae , for example, the words can be clearly understood and the textual and musical accents usually coincide. Mouton was fond of full sonorities; all voices are consistently brought in soon after the initial point of imitation (although the entrance of a cantus firmus is often long delayed) and he normally kept all voices active most of the time. In spite of this, the texture is usually clear and transparent, owing partly to his care in keeping the various voice ranges separate. On the other hand, the uniformity

Article

theatri musici (1669) (diss., U. of Illinois, 2004) M. Frandsen : Crossing Confessional Boundaries: the Patronage of Italian Music in Seventeeth-Century Dresden (New York, 2006) [incl. works list] M. Frandsen : ‘Musical Internationalism and Italianità in Dresden’, Italian Opera in Central Europe 1614-1780, v. 2: Italianità: Image and Practice , ed. C. Herr , H. Seifert , A. Sommer-Mathis and R. Strohm (Berlin, 2008), 115–39 L. Berglund : ‘The Roman Connection. Dissemination and Reception of Roman Music in the North’, The Dissemination of Music in

Article

Leon Botstein

of the present, particularly in the context of rising rates of literacy and the expansion of the audience well beyond the ranks of the 18th-century aristocracy. Wagner himself used the term ‘modern’ in 1849 as an epithet directed against Meyerbeer as a way of characterizing grand opera’s cheap concession to popular and philistine taste. Art was being debased by those who sought to celebrate and exploit the spiritually corrupt aspects of modern life, including trade, industry and journalistically manipulated public opinion. From the mid-century, however, following

Article

Jürgen Schaarwächter

Rootham’, MT , 79 (1938), 17–22 F. Knight : Cambridge Music from the Middle Ages to Modern Times (Cambridge and New York, 1980) K. Shenton : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Journal , 7 (1985), 30–37 A.-M.H. Forbes : ‘A Comparative Study of Folk Material in Opera: Bantock’s The Seal Woman and Rootham’s The Two Sisters ’, MR , 51 (1990), 95–115 J. Schaarwächter : ‘Cyril Bradley Rootham’, British Music Society Newsletter , no.71 (1996), 257–60 C.W. Price : Lost in the Revival: The Sacred Choral Music of Cyril Bradley Rootham (1875-1938)

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(Horace: OdesI), 4 solo vv, chorus, c 1820, autograph MS in Cincinnati Art Museum; Hymnus in solemnia academiae: Felix ad est, solo v, chorus, 1825, lost Das Gastmahl (Goethe), solo vv, chorus (Berlin, 1832) Divis orte bonis optime prussiae, chorus, lost Opera, scenas etc.: Das Orakel (op, C.F. Gellert), c 1778, frag., lost O Dio, se in questo istante (scena and aria, P. Metastasio), 1781, D-B ; Misero me! ah! che veggo! (scena and aria, Metastasio), 1783, lost Barbaro, che a tuoi nodi (scena and aria, Metastasio), S

Article

Ulrich Mosch

‘music with images’, Das Mädchen mit den Schwefelhölzern ( 1990–96 ). In this, his first stage work, the subject is not merely the projection of the plot of Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale ‘The Little Match Girl’ onto the social conditions of our time, but also the institution of opera itself as part of the ‘aesthetic apparatus’. In response to the stereotyped perception of his music as the expression of protest or denial, a cliché that became established at quite an early date, Lachenmann has repeatedly emphasized the novelty and uncontaminated aspect of his sound

Article

Nils Grinde

construction of two-bar motifs is another element taken from folk music. Ex.2 Ex.3 Kjerulf also composed 20 songs and arrangements for mixed chorus, 11 vocal duets and some songs for vocal ensembles (trios and quartets). His works for larger forces include music for comic opera, Søkadetterne iland (‘Midshipmen in Port’), and a polonaise for a carnival of 1863 (both orchestrated by the conductor Paolo Sperati). As already demonstrated, some of Kjerulf’s compositions are clearly founded on a Norwegian folk style. In other works the currents of German

Article

Steven Ledbetter, James Chater and Roland Jackson

succession between 1585 and 1587 . All five books were prepared for publication by someone other than Marenzio (serious composers affected lack of interest in their productions of light music). They were evidently popular since they were frequently reprinted, and dedications of later volumes in the series refer to the speed with which the earlier ones had been taken up by musicians. In these works Marenzio cultivated a certain artistic primitiveness, with frequent parallel 5ths and other normally forbidden procedures. Virtually all the works are strophic with the musical

Article

J. Bradford Robinson

ist Musik? (Wilhelmshaven, 1985) ‘Analyse des Mythos: Claude Lévi-Strauss und “Der Ring des Nibelungen”’, Zur Kritik der wissenschaftlichen Rationalität: zum 65. Geburtstag von Kurt Hübner , ed. H. Lenk (Freiburg, 1986), 531–42 ‘Euripide, il teatro dell’assurdo e l'opera in musica: intorno all recezione del'antico nella storia della musica’, La drammaturgia musicale , ed. L. Bianconi (Bologna, 1986), 281–308 ‘Warum ist neue Musik so schwer verständlich? Plädoyer für ein historisches Verständnis’, Zeugnis des Wissens , ed. H. Maier-Leibnitz (Mainz, 1986)

Article

Gianmario Borio

profile, the piece displays significant evidence of Varèse’s influence. With Il canto sospeso Nono reached the climax of his maturing process. The nine movements which comprise the work are all rigorously organized according to serial principles, though the number of elements, and how they are combined, varies from piece to piece. Starting with a limited nucleus – an all-interval row and a Fibonacci sequence – diverse results emerge, the nature of which depends directly on the meaning of individual texts and the dramaturgy of the work as a whole. Melodic splintering

Article

Michael James, Howard Rye, Barry Kernfeld and André Clergeat

Waterfront (1953, Decca MF36166) As sideman C. Hawkins: Stardust (1935, HMV K7527); Honeysuckle Rose/Crazy Rhythm (1937, Swing 1); S. Grappelli: Sugar (1937, Swing 69); R. Stewart: Montmartre (1939, Swing 56); D. Ellington: on Chicago Civic Opera House Concert (1946, Prima 01-02), Blues, Honeysuckle Rose, Ride, Red, Ride Transcriptions A Treasury of Django Reinhardt Guitar Solos (New York, c 1967/ Rc 1992) S. Averoff, ed.: Django Reinhardt (New York, c 1978)

Article

David Osmond-Smith

decade that followed, Pennisi's instrumental output continued unabated – testimony to the resiliently inventive energy unleashed by resolving the ‘dark night’ of the late 1960s and 70s. But he also permitted himself a more exuberant and lyrical use of the voice, notably in his radio opera Aci il fiume ( 1986 ) and in a number of subsequent works such as the cantata O lux beatissima ( 1994 ). His inventive forays into musical theatre expanded to admit collaboration. Where previously he had put together words, music and design in a creative equipoise, in L’esequie

Article

Peter Hoffmann

small as eighth-tones). ‘Tempered’ sieves appeared later with the pelog -like scale of Jonchaies ( 1977 ), Aïs ( 1980 ), and Shaar ( 1983 ), and applied to other musical parameters as well, especially to duration. 9. Ancient theatre and Polytopes. Instead of composing operas, Xenakis developed his own vision of a ‘synthesis of the arts’ on the basis of ancient drama, as in his Oresteïa ( 1965–6 ), to which were later added Kassandra ( 1987 ) and La déesse Athéna ( 1992 ) to complete Aeschylus’ trilogy. In his programmatic text ‘Notes sur la musique

Article

oratorios and a number of theatrical items, even pantomimes, and especially certain occasional pieces such as martial music … Turkish music, music with ‘steel keyboard’ and lastly a musical sleigh ride; not to speak of marches, so-called ‘Nachtstücke’ and many hundreds of minuets, opera dances and similar items. Most of these works are lost: of the 30 large serenades only one is extant, and of the oratorios and other theatrical items only two. Nevertheless, a significant body of music, chiefly symphonies, keyboard and chamber works, as well as masses, litanies and

Article

Martha Ellen Davis and Paul Austerlitz

1835–1905 ), who composed the national anthem, and José María Arredondo ( 1840–1924 ). Church music again declined in the late 19th century but concert and salon music flourished, stimulated by resident foreign teachers and conductors and visiting troupes from Cuba and Puerto Rico giving opera, zarzuela and variety shows. The most musically active towns were Santo Domingo, Santiago de los Caballeros, Puerto Plata, San Francisco de Macorís and San Pedro de Macorís (the former three remained so to the end of the 20th century). Bands, chamber orchestras and music schools continued

Article

Rubato  

Richard Hudson

fantasia. It requires an accompaniment that can conspicuously project the sound of strict time: the basso continuo of the Baroque, the Alberti bass figurations of the Classical period, or the waltz-like patterns in ex.4 and in many aria accompaniments in 19th-century French and Italian opera. During the later years of the 19th century the earlier meaning of rubato gradually disappeared, although isolated elements of the technique lingered on in the controversial concept of ‘compensation’ (meaning then that retard and acceleration should be exactly equal within a bar, phrase

Article

Drum  

James Blades, Janet K. Page, Edmund A. Bowles, Anthony King, Mervyn McLean, Mary Riemer-Weller, Robert Anderson and James Holland

remained a rarity in Europe until the 18th century when the imitation of the Turkish Janissary bands became fashionable in European military bands ( see Janissary music and Band, §II, 2, (i) ) and, on appropriate occasions, in orchestral music. Early experiments are seen in Freschi’s opera Berenice vendicativa performed in 1680 , and in an early 18th-century work by Gottfried Finger entitled Concerto alla turchesta . Among the Classical composers Gluck seems to have made the earliest use of the bass drum, in Le cadi dupé ( 1761 ). He was followed by Mozart in

Article

David Osmond-Smith

result from slowing down its rotation. Despite his experimental work in abstact theatre – Collage ( 1961 ) with visual materials from Perilli, and Collage 4 (Jesu meine Freude) ( 1979 ) – it was not easy to envisage how such techniques might find their way into the conventional opera house. Yet in ES ( 1980 ), Clementi found a dramaturgical proposition impeccably congruent with his technical concerns: three female characters locked into an endless cycle of phantasy about the eternally delayed appearance of the ideal lover. His more recent Carillon ( 1991–2

Article

Irén Kertész Wilkinson

çingene ’, ‘ cigány ’ or ‘gypsy’. Spanish Gypsies refer to themselves as Gitan (‘Gypsy’). Others opt for a different name all together. In German speaking areas, the ‘Gypsy’ group who suffered most during the Holocaust stress this through their name, Sinti. In Finland they call themselves Kale. Within the broad categories of Roma, Sinti or Gitan, there are further subdivisions according to type and level of descent, language use and religion, all of which serve as a framework for Roma social structure. Many Roma groups are divided according to their previous or present