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reorchestrated Philidor’s Le sorcier . His own style remained unadventurous: even La surprise de l’amour , much praised by some, uses orthodox operetta formulas. Carmosine was completed at Poise’s death, to be heard eventually after 36 years. Works Operas unless otherwise stated, all are opéras comiques, first performed and published in Paris Bonsoir, voisin (1, A. de Beauplan and Brunswick [L. Lhérie]), Lyrique, 20 Sept 1853 ( c 1855) Les charmeurs (1, A. de Leuven, after C.-S. Favart: Les ensorcelés, ou Jeannot et Jeannette ), Lyrique, 7 March 1855

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James R. Anthony

attention’). In any case, the ballet-héroïque , with all the trappings of monarchical opera, replaced the more frivolous earlier type. The fanciful characters, amorous ladies and lively petits-maîtres of the first-period opéra-ballet disappeared, to find a place in parodies, vaudevilles and the budding opéra comique . The structure of the ballet-héroïque is identical with that of the opéra-ballet – that is, three or four acts, each with its own plot; it may be thought of as a specific type of opéra-ballet that made up the second and final period of the

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Seconda dedicata all’illustriss. Signor Giacomo Cavalli … M DC LV ), and by extension also to the composition. The term was commonly used for serious Italian opera in the 18th century, and is in effect interchangeable with the primarily modern term opera seria . Variants such as dramma in musica (referring to the setting rather than to the verbal text) or dramma musicale are also found. Some later writers have misinterpreted the term in the sense ‘drama through music’ and applied it to musico-dramatic effects achieved by the composer. See also Opera, §III, 2: Early

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of his earlier opera, Hell’s Angels , to what an opera audience might conventionally expect. It includes several songs in which the vocal line is set in tonal harmonies, rather than set against a merely colouristic background, and there is a strong melodic interest – in Anna’s lament for her dead husband, for example, Serezha’s passionately detailed declaration of love for Sashka’s body, and a sentimental ditty for a Ticket Collector (bass). Most prominent of all is the vigorous revolutionary hymn with which Pasternak (high baritone) begins the opera and with which

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Piero Weiss and Julian Budden

passages but in other respects not unlike that of the contemporary opera seria (the arias are nearly all in da capo form). Like opera seria , these works are in three acts; Acts 1 and 2 often end with a short brawl for three or four of the cast, the germ of what later, in the north, was to become the extended opera buffa finale. The overtures, three-movement sinfonias, are indistinguishable from those of opera seria . 3. The north to c 1750. Piero Weiss Piero Weiss From Naples, opera buffa spread to Rome. Bernardo Saddumene, one of the leading Naples

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Douglas Leedy

controversial departure, guest conductors have been engaged for all productions. Although a new opera, Lucy’s Lapses by Christopher Drobny, was commissioned for the 1989–90 season, the repertory has remained solidly conservative. In each season (October–June) five operas are given, each receiving three performances. Bibliography A. H. Ernst : ‘Opera comes to Oregon’, Sunday Oregonian Northwest Rotogravure Magazine (18 and 25 March 1956) D. Maclaine : ‘History of Portland Opera’, Willamette Week (4, 18 and 25 Nov 1980)

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George Grove and John R. Gardner

original pedal fugues and slow movements, other pieces for the organ and organ arrangements from the works of Handel and Bach, songs, duets, and many partsongs for four voices, of which a favourite was All among the Barley . In 1863 she married the organist F.A. Bridge ( 1841–1917 ). Her opera Bleakmoor for Copseleigh (unpublished) was in the repertory of their chamber opera company.

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M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet and Richard Langham Smith

Milhaud’s Le pauvre matelot ( 1927 ) and many others were not called ‘opéras comiques’ by their librettists and composers, indeed, the use (or misuse) of the term to cover all French operas with spoken dialogue, at least those given at the Opéra-Comique, seems to date from the late 19th century (it so appears in the writings of Pougin, Clément and Larousse, and the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary ). Finally the French ‘comédie’ and ‘comique’, when used by librettists, composers and their contemporaries, have no precise equivalents in other languages: European

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Piero Weiss and Julian Budden

bravura passages but in other respects not unlike that of the contemporary opera seria (the arias are nearly all in da capo form). Like opera seria , these works are in three acts; Acts 1 and 2 often end with a short brawl for three or four of the cast, the germ of what later, in the north, was to become the extended opera buffa finale. The overtures, three-movement sinfonie , are indistinguishable from those of opera seria . 3. The north to c 1750. Piero Weiss From Naples, opera buffa spread to Rome. Bernardo Saddumene, one of the leading Naples librettists

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Patrick O’Connor

director and as artistic director of Skylight Opera in Milwaukee, where his first production was L’incoronazione di Poppea ( 1982 ), followed by Orfeo and Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria . For Bernstein he wrote the libretto of A Quiet Place ( 1983 ), which he also directed at La Scala and in Vienna. His productions of Gluck’s Orphée ( 1988 , Seattle), and Handel’s Xerxes ( 1985 , Milwaukee), Alcina ( 1987 , St Louis) and Partenope ( 1988 , Omaha) all furthered his concern with the modern interpretation of Baroque opera. He has also translated Monteverdi’s

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Michael Davidson

Pergolesi, Kreutzer, Dittersdorf and Grétry were given there, all in translations by Ruloffs. The Théâtre Français, on the Amstel River, opened in 1788 it was originally for members only but opened to the general public after the French Revolution; now called the Kleine Komedie, it is still used for musicals and cabarets. The Hoogduitse Schouwburg (High German Theatre) on the Amstelstraat was built in 1791 and staged opera regularly until 1853 . Its six-week season in 1794 comprised four operas by Mozart, four by Dittersdorf and one by Salieri, and from 1798

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Don Harrán

of some importance in the early history of the madrigal. Works Grand'è 'l mio duol, 4vv, 1540 20 Maledetto sia amor, 4vv, 1544²², ed. A.M. Monterosso Vacchelli, L'opera musicale di Antonfrancesco Doni (Cremona, 1969) Poi ch'amor cosi vole, 4vv, 1540 20 Vorrei il mio martire, 4vv, 1540 20

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James R. Anthony

prologue, of having Thalia (muse of Comedy) triumph over Melpomene (muse of Tragedy) in a setting representing the stage of the Paris Opéra. La Font and Mouret lost no time in composing another entrée, La critique des fêtes de Thalie , and in changing the name of the opéra-ballet to Les fêtes de Thalie , all of which appeared to placate the aestheticians. In 1722 a new entrée, ‘La provençale’, was added, proving the most popular of all, and holding the stage until 1778 . La Font’s other works for the lyric stage include two tragédies en musique , Hypermnèstre

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Patrick J. Smith and Nicola Badolato

Dec 15, 2002 ). American opera administrator and conductor . He was educated at Yale University (BA 1950 ), and was an accompanist, opera coach, and conductor in New York from 1951 to 1956 . In 1957 he founded the Santa Fe Opera Company in New Mexico and became its general director and a staff conductor. Almost wholly owing to Crosby’s vision, the company established itself as an innovative and dynamic company, presenting many American and world premieres. To increase accessibility for American audiences, Crosby staged all operas in English; staging, lighting

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Folia  

Giuseppe Gerbino and Alexander Silbiger

songs and dances, as well as the subject of variation sets. It appeared as a song in Die grossmächtige Thalestris of J.P. Förtsch ( 1690 ), as A Royall Ode for the coronation of Queen Anne in 1702 (contained in A Collection of the Choicest Songs, GB-Lbl G.304), in The Beggar’s Opera ( 1728 ) and in Le théâtre de la foire of Le Sage and D’Orneval ( 1724–37 ); and it is presented as a dance in the books of Feuillet ( 1700 ), Gregorio Lambranzi ( 1716 ; see illustration ) and Taubert ( 1717 ). The numerous sets of variations include those by Corelli ( 1700 )

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Richard Toop

Mittwoch aus Licht ( ‘Wednesday from Light’ ) Opera in four scenes, a greeting and a farewell by Karlheinz Stockhausen to his own libretto. As yet ( 2007 ) unstaged as a whole, but all individual parts have been given semi-staged performances: Scene 1 ‘World Parliament’, Stuttgart, Liederhalle, 3 Feb 1996 Scene 2 ‘Orchestral Finalists’, Amsterdam, Carré Theatre, 14 June 1996 Scene 3 ‘Helicopter String Quartet’, Amsterdam, Westergasfabriek, 26 June 1995 Scene 4 ‘Michaelion’

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Nicholas Temperley

narrowest criterion – that opera must be all-sung – is to reduce English opera between 1762 and 1891 to a mere handful of unsuccessful works. One may argue that what was done in English theatres at that time was not opera but something else with its own values and norms. But for the present purpose an ‘English opera’ is a work that attempts to apply the methods of mainstream continental opera to a dramatic libretto in English. No account of English opera can be true or balanced unless it is seen against the native tradition, which at all times has supplied the bulk

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David Cummings

composition, piano and choral singing at the Milan Conservatory, graduating in 1933 . He was successful in Italy for more than 20 years, giving a wide range of operas at all the major houses. He conducted Rigoletto at the end of the 1955–6 season at Covent Garden, returning early the following season for a Ballo in maschera that was described as ‘noisy and violent’ (H. D. Rosenthal, Two Centuries of Opera at Covent Garden , 1958 ). Quadri conducted Italian repertory in Vienna (Volksoper and Staatsoper) from 1957 . Don Pasquale , Tosca and Fedora are among

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Elizabeth Forbes

Rangoni ( Boris Godunov ). Leiferkus's operatic recordings, all displaying his rich, intense timbre and incisive diction, include Don Pizarro, Iago and Telramund as well as four of his finest Russian roles: Tomsky, Mazeppa, Rangoni and Ruprecht. He is also a fine recitalist, and has made outstanding recordings of Russian songs that reveal his brilliant gifts of characterization and, as in Musorgsky's The Peepshow and Song of the Flea , an ebullient sense of humour. Bibliography E. Forbes : ‘Sergey Leiferkus’, Opera , 41 (1990), 175–80

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William A. Everett and Lee Snook

programme from 1942 to 1946 . It is as Tony, the lead role in Loesser's Broadway musical The Most Happy Fella ( 1956 ), that Weede is best remembered; he regarded the vocal technique that it required to be equal to that of any opera. He subsequently appeared on Broadway in Milk and Honey ( 1961 ) and Cry for Us All ( 1970 ). One of the finest American baritones of the century, Weede had the ability and flexibility to adapt his voice successfully to both operatic and musical theatre roles without surrendering to the potential trappings of either style and the high standards