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Article

Richard Macnutt

18th century, after which the octavo format used by the other Paris theatres was adopted. From the 1720s comic operas appeared in a new type of publication that was to become popular in England with the advent of ballad opera: the music of some or all of the airs, though usually only the melodic lines, was printed within or as a supplement to the libretto. This format was continued, principally by the publisher Duchesne, in librettos of many comic operas and parodies from the 1730s to the 1770s, especially those of C.-S. Favart. Until the late 1820s publishers issued

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in 1750 , and in November 1753 Jommelli was appointed Ober-Kapellmeister. For the next 16 years he wrote and supervised virtually all operas at the court, and during that time assembled one of the best orchestras in Europe. Carl Eugen authorized extensive renovations to the court theatre in Stuttgart between 1756 and 1758 , and after being forced to move to Ludwigsburg he built a new Schlosstheater ( 1765–6 ). His tastes in opera favoured French-inspired spectacle and dance; Noverre served as his ballet-master from 1760 until 1767 , when a mounting deficit

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John A. Rice

the more serious qualities of Axur when he praised it as ‘the most excellent of all serious Italian operas – even including Mozart’s La clemenza di Tito ’. First performed in celebration of the marriage of Archduke Franz, Joseph’s nephew, Axur was an immediate and lasting success. It was said to have been Joseph’s favourite opera, and it found favour with the Viennese public as well. With 100 performances between 1788 and 1805 , Axur was one of the most often performed operas in the Viennese court theatres during this period. Many performances in Germany

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(above all those for the lead soprano) and its ensembles. In time, however, the failings of the plot – the same as that of Donizetti’ s Caterina Cornaro – began to obtrude, as did the general lack of drama and characterization and an inclination to unvaried musical treatment; as one critic maintained, the bandits sang in the same lively march tempo as the knights with no noticeable difference in musical style. Lachner did improve the finale, which originally faded away quietly – an unforgivable lapse of instinct in relation to the requirements of grand opera. But

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Jim Samson

is conventional. A young girl, Basia (soprano), and her stepmother, Dorota (soprano), are in love with the same boy, Stach (tenor). Dorota tries to arrange for Basia to marry someone else (a mountaineer), but after several complications Basia remains with her lover and all ends happily. The opera’s significance lies in the texts of its songs rather than in the plot. These deal with patriotic sentiments, the lack of independence and a dislike of foreign powers – themes close to the heart of Polish audiences during the years of the Partitions. Musically the work is

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John C.G. Waterhouse

Don Alvaro di Castiglia (baritones) are all supposed to typify the nationalities evident from their names. Rosaura eventually manages to choose between them by disguising herself, in turn, as a lady compatriot of each suitor: catching them at moments when they are off their guard, she tempts all but one of them to prove himself less than wholly committed to her. The lucky exception is the impulsive but fundamentally sincere Italian. The slightness of the original play helps to explain the rather slender effect of this opera, when compared with I quatro rusteghi

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Tonary  

Michel Huglo

Lipphardt) and the tonary of Regino of Prüm ( GerbertS , i, 231 a ) include some examples of responsories for each tone. It is more difficult to understand the inclusion of graduals, alleluias and offertories of the Mass in the earliest of all tonaries, the late 8th-century tonary of St Riquier (ed. Huglo, 1971 , pp.26–8). Not all the chants in the Gregorian repertory imply a dominant–final relationship (these elaborate non-antiphonal chants are used, in any event, only as illustrations of the division of the repertory into eight tones). Individual chants are not assigned

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Malcolm Boyd

prepared for the Neapolitan stage. As in his other mature operas, the basic musical constituent after the ‘Italian’ overture is the recitative-aria unit. Except for Marcus’s ‘Nella procella che agita l’alma’ in Act 3 scene i, all the complete arias sung by the six serious characters are in the customary ternary (da capo or dal segno) form. A particular feature of the opera is that no fewer than six arias are left incomplete, in one case because the character falls asleep, in the others because he or she is interrupted by the entrance of another. This enhances the musical

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Cairo  

Charles Pitt and Tarek H.A. Hassan

Marius Poncet organized a season of Italian and French operas (and the ever popular Lohengrin ), all sung in French. But the Opera House, with its limited capacity, was never profitable, and in 1923 , after the failure of another French season, the organization of opera was left to the Italians, and spoken drama to the French. In 1922 , with the break-up of the Ottoman empire, the Cairo Opera and the Zizinia Theatre in Alexandria became the Théâtres Royaux, French being the official language of the court. By now operas were being given in Arabic at the Garden Theatre

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Steven Huebner

Comédie-Française and then at the Opéra. His work as stage director for almost all operas given at the Opéra from Auber’s La muette de Portici ( 1828 ) to Meyerbeer’s Le prophète ( 1849 ) caused the impresario Alphonse Royer later to refer to him as the ‘Alexander of the mise-en-scène ’. Given the importance of stage spectacle in French grand opera, Duponchel contributed much to the success of major works by Meyerbeer and Halévy; he was instrumental in placing greater emphasis on local colour than had previously been the custom in Opéra productions. After the resignation

Article

Jon Bagüés

exemplified by French comic opera. His works were written to his own librettos, and privately performed. His comic opera El borracho burlado , performed in Azcoitia in 1764 , consisted of 35 scenes divided into two acts; it was the first opera in which the text was sung in Basque, though the spoken parts were in Spanish. In 1781 he wrote El amo querido , a comic opera for the students at the Real Seminario Patriótico Bascongado in Vergara. He died while he was composing La paz , another comic opera for the same school. All his operas are lost.

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Dixit Dominus, 5vv, insts, 1749 [autograph] Dixit Dominus, 5vv, insts; De profundis, 2vv, vns; Domine ad adiuvandum; Magnificat, 5vv, insts, 1745 [autograph] Magnificat, 5vv, insts: all I-Nc 5 motets [all autograph] Letamini fideles, A, vns, bc; Nova luce, 5vv, insts; Ridet, S, insts; Salve coeli, 5vv, insts; Vola turtur de nido, S, insts, 1729 2 Te Deum, 2vv, 5vv, insts: all Nc Alma Redemptoris; Ave maris stella, 5vv, insts; Beati omnes, 4vv, insts; Christus e Miserere, 4vv, 5vv, org [also Mc , Nc ]; Compieta, 4vv, vns; Graduale per S Filippo Neri;

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s of Faust , Manon , La traviata , Il barbiere di Siviglia and Madama Butterfly , with Germaine Revel singing all the prima donna roles. From then until the French left Morocco there were usually annual opera seasons at the theatre, run by impresarios bringing companies from France with a municipal government subsidy. The theatre was demolished in 1982 . Bibliography C. Pitt : 'Casablanca un théâtre historique perdu', Opéra Magazine 90 (2013)

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George J. Buelow

Trost, Johann Baptist Matthäus ( fl 1714–26 ). German composer . He was one of a group of German musicians of the early 18th century who wrote operas for the court of Margrave Karl Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach. According to archival material ( D-KA ), Trost was born in Württemberg. He became a Hof-musicus in autumn 1714 and also served as tutor for singers of the court opera at Durlach. All Trost’s operas seem to be lost, including Rhea Sylvia ( 1716 ) and Ademarus ( 1718 ). Two other works attributed to him are Die bestürzte Königin in Schottland Maria Stuart

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Volpone  

Hugo Cole

and lets it be known that he has died, leaving all his possessions to Mosca. When he throws off his disguise, Mosca, hoping to retain Volpone’s fortune, denounces him as an impostor. Volpone in fury reveals the whole plot. Bonario’s name is cleared and Volpone and Mosca are punished for their sins. Burt has toned down the savagery of the original, extracting from it a neat opera buffa plot with a lighthearted finale of his own invention in which a moralizing chorus addresses the audience. Volpone is a number opera with attractive arias for Mosca, Volpone and Celia

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Richard Wigmore

début, as Jaquino ( Fidelio ), followed in 1993 . He has subsequently sung in all the major opera houses in Europe (Covent Garden début, in Carl Nielsen’s Maskarade , 2005 ) and the USA, admired above all for the grace and lyrical ardour of his Mozart singing. In addition to his Mozart roles – Tamino, Belmonte, Ferrando, Don Ottavio (which he sang to acclaim at Covent Garden in 2007 ), Gomatz ( Zaide ), Idomeneo and Titus – Schade’s repertory includes David ( Die Meistersinger ), Matteo ( Arabella ), which he sang at the Vienna Staatsoper in 2007 , Nemorino ( L’elisir

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Paul Corneilson

in Idomeneo (cut before the première). The opera featured all but one of the same singers as Temistocle : Raaff (Sulla), the sopranos Dorothea (Junia) and Elisabeth Wendling (Celia), Roncaglia (Cecilius) and G. B. Zonca (Cinna). In many details, Lucio Silla is similar in design to Temistocle . There are several concertante arias, and in general the writing for wind instruments is especially rich and varied. Although the work was not performed during his visit to Mannheim, Mozart was able to borrow a copy of the opera from G. J. Vogler. The differences between

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to opera (opera) Opera dictionaries and guides fall into a number of different categories. First, chronologies: some of the earliest Italian and French examples take this form, and the usefulness of such a format has been demonstrated in the 20th century by Alfred Loewenberg’s Annals of Opera 1597–1940 . Second, dictionaries ordered alphabetically by title, composer or librettist: Franz Stieger arranged his Opern-Lexikon by all three. Third, guides to the operatic repertory including plot summaries and discussion of the music: Gustav Kobbé’s Complete Opera Book

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Edward H. Tarr and Norbert Dubowy

conventions of Venetian opera Sartorio effected changes in timbre by the occasional use of viols instead of violins, as in Adelaide (Act 2 scene xviii ‘Antri oscuri’) and Anacreonte tiranno (Act 2 scene v ‘Nell’inferno’). Although many earlier operas mention the trumpet in their texts and even feature imitations of trumpet fanfares in their string writing, Adelaide ( 1672 ) appears to be the first in a long line of Venetian operas to call for trumpets (two in D in the sinfonia). Sartorio wrote for a solo trumpet in one aria in Massenzio , and in all his subsequent surviving

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Balbi, Cavalli contributed to the installation of a stable opera at Naples, where in 1650 and 1651 Didone , Giasone and Egisto were staged. In general Cavalli’s works (above all Egisto , Giasone , Xerse and Erismena ) were a mainstay of the repertory as opera gained a firm footing even in many smaller Italian towns during the 1650s and 1660s. Cavalli’s wife died in 1652 ; they had no children. By her will, probated on 16 September, she left nearly all her property to him. Most of the operas that he composed specifically for other cities date from the