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Article

Susan L. Porter and Kate Van Winkle Keller

Magazine in June 1790 , the first printing of music from any American opera (see illustration). The same magazine gave a critical report of the opera, concluding that “the want of humour, of variety in the dialogue, and the length of some of the soliloquies, render it less fit for the stage than for the closet” (that is, to be read privately). All 11 songs in the work use tunes that were widely available in published sources; five are ballads, and nine had appeared in other 18th-century operas. The influence of the galant style is very clear in the choice of music

Article

Sigurd  

Hugh Macdonald

Sigurd Opéra in four acts and nine tableaux by (Louis-Etienne-)Ernest Reyer to a libretto by Camille Du Locle and Alfred Blau; Brussels, Théâtre de la Monnaie, 7 January 1884 . Blau’s libretto, versified by Du Locle, was based on a French translation of the Nibelungenlied . When Reyer embarked on the opera, probably between 1862 and 1866 (although this remains uncertain), Reyer knew no Wagner later than Lohengrin and was certainly unaware that he was engaged on a vast opera on the same subject. The fact that Sigurd was not performed

Article

Ripresa  

Giuseppe Gerbino and Richard Hudson

Ripresa ( It. ) (1) A repeat or repetition in a general sense, including the repetition of an opera or play. (2) The refrain of the 14th-century ballata and the poetic and musical forms that adopted the ballata scheme, such as the lauda ( see Lauda ) and the Frottola, §2 . It is linked, both metrically and musically, to the last section of the strophe, the volta , and was originally repeated after each strophe. 14th-century theorists regarded the ripresa as the element that characterizes the ballata and distinguishes it from other poetic forms. Different

Article

John Bergsagel

( fl mid-18th century ). Danish composer . He was active as an all-round freelance musician in Copenhagen: he played the violin for a couple of seasons in the orchestra of the Italian opera, taught singing and music to actresses, composed and accompanied arias which one of the dancers sang in the ballets, and arranged and copied music for the earliest Danish operas. An Italian opera company had been called to Copenhagen by King Frederik V in 1747 but by 1756 it was apparent that opera in a foreign language did not command sufficient public support. A musically

Article

Alan Blyth

Rosina ( 1998 ), in all of which she sang and acted with a natural command of the stage. With her outgoing personality and powers of communication, thanks not least to her perfect diction, she has been an enthusiastic proselytizer of opera on television, notably in her own programmes ‘Viva la Diva’ and ‘Lesley Garrett – Tonight’, and on her mixed recitals on CD. In all this, however, she has never compromised her musicianship, excellent technique or keen sense of style. Bibliography R. Milnes : ‘Lesley Garrett’, Opera , 47 (1996), 499–506

Article

Milena Bozhikova

recordings for Bulgarian National Radio, Bulgarian National Television, and has self-released some recordings. In 1999 the Varna Philharmonic Orchestra merged with the Opera and continued to operate as a public cultural institution under the new name Opera and Philharmonic Society of Varna. After 2010 the two groups split and the opera’s name was changed to the State Opera.

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Timişoara , under the name Romanian State Opera from Cluj in Timişoara. Since its founding the Opera has produced over 200 operas, operettas, and ballets, of all schools and styles including over 40 Romanian works, many of them premières, most notably Oedipus by George Enescu and Meşterul Manole (‘Master Manole’) by Sigismund Toduţă . Since 1971 the Opera has performed with success in a series of tours throughout Western Europe, as well as in England, Turkey, Korea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and the former Czechoslovakia.

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John Rosselli

‘cute’ without inquiring into their conditions of work. A special case are the children’s companies, mainly Italian, which between about 1790 and 1920 performed operas with all the parts sung by pre-pubertal children. Teacher-impresarios took on the children of poor families for whom even modest opera earnings outstripped what they could have got in other jobs. The companies performed mainly comic operas, but one at least put on Rigoletto and Lucia di Lammermoor . They toured successfully in Italy and the Americas, running their seasons like any other company except

Article

James R. Anthony

Camille, reine des volsques (all Campra, 1712 , 1713 and 1717 respectively) are true tragedies. Camille , a political tragedy, minimizes the role of the supernatural. Achille et Déidamie (Campra, 1735 ) is a weak work for which librettist and composer were accused of ‘completely drowning the subject in divertissements. No one wished to honour it by calling it a tragedy’. In Les fêtes vénitiennes (Campra, 1710 ) music and text are equal partners; the work conforms exactly with Rémond de Saint-Mard’s definition of opéra-ballet : ‘Each act must be made

Article

Curtis Price and Louise K. Stein

the development of all-sung opera in England. After Purcell’s death in 1695 , the Theatre Royal continued to mount new semi-operas. The most notable, The Island Princess ( 1699 ), enjoyed more performances than any English opera until The Beggar’s Opera ( 1728 ). Adapted by Peter Anthony Motteux from earlier plays of John Fletcher and Nahum Tate, it had music by Richard Leveridge, Daniel Purcell and Jeremiah Clarke. Earlier in the same season had appeared John Dennis and John Eccles’s Rinaldo and Armida ( 1698 ); unusually for semi-opera, it was a tragedy,

Article

Samuel Claro-Valdés

in a penal colony for seven years. On his return journey to Europe in 1844 , he disembarked permanently at Valparaíso. In 1846 he composed a three-act opera in Spanish, Telésfora , the first lyric drama to be attempted in Chile; it was dedicated to the country’s grandeur, but only one chorus was ever performed. All his works are lost, but in addition to Telésfora he is known to have completed three other operas ( Il granatiere , 1860 , to an Italian libretto, Ismenilda and Ondega ) and to have left four incomplete ( Walhala , 1863 , to a German libretto,

Article

Stephen Johnson

Shakh-Senem Opera in three acts by Reyngol’d Moritsevich Glier after an Azerbaijani legend; Baku, 17 March 1927 (revised version, Baku, 1934 ). The opera tells of the wandering ‘Ashug’ musician Kerib (tenor), who takes part in a singing competition for the hand of the Shah’s beautiful daughter, Shakh-Senem (soprano). He wins, but the Shah (baritone) is angered by his poverty and his championship of the oppressed people. He banishes Kerib, but the people, who have sided with the young Ashug, mutiny, and Shakh-Senem defies her father, vowing to be faithful

Article

Rodolfo Celletti and Valeria Pregliasco Gualerzi

exceptional beauty. Encouraged by the tenor Francesco Marconi to devote herself to opera, she studied with Maddelena Mariani-Masi and made her début in 1900 at the S Carlos, Lisbon, in Pagliacci , immediately afterwards singing in La bohème at the S Carlo, Naples. Although mostly engaged in Paris, Monte Carlo and, above all, St Petersburg, she also sang in New York (Metropolitan and Manhattan Opera House) between 1907 and 1910 , and in London in 1908 (Covent Garden) and 1911 (London Opera House). With an agreeable though limited voice, she was an elegant, natural

Article

Thomas Warburton

department at the University of Akron and founded the De Leone School of Music. He received the David Bispham Memorial Medal for his opera Alglala , which concerns a lady descended from an Indian tribe that once lived in Ohio. He also composed four sacred music dramas. Works A Millionaire’s Caprice [Capriccio di miliardario] (operetta, 3), Naples, Granville-Fournier Opera, 26 July 1910 Alglala (1, C. Fanning), Akron, All-American Opera Company, 23 May 1924, vs (New York, 1924) Princess Ting-Ah-Ling (operetta, 2, C. O. Roos and J. Roos), vs (New York, 1930) New

Article

Pauline  

Nigel Burton

the truth is revealed. After further vicissitudes Claude enlists for military service overseas, where he distinguishes himself by his bravery. His honour thus restored, he is forgiven by all concerned and the opera ends happily. Pauline exemplifies Cowen’s lightest stylistic vein, in which mild French chromaticisms support italianate melodic lines. It was the first British opera to be commissioned by Carl Rosa, and although only partially successful during its initial run it merits revival as an exquisite period piece.

Article

Charles Pitt

City Hall (seating 800). The Hong Kong Festival, founded in 1972 , began early on to include opera in its programmes. In 1975 the Swedish Royal Opera gave three performances each of Così fan tutte (with Söderström and Kerstin Meyer) and Die Entführung , all in the City Hall. During the festival of February 1980 , Opera Rara gave four performances of a ‘composite’ Offenbach opera, Christopher Columbus , at the Baptist College. One of the first locally produced opera productions was of Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci at the City Hall in 1980 , with the

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

‘Demophoön’ ) Opera seria in three acts by Niccolò Jommelli to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio ( see Demofoonte ); Naples, Teatro S Carlo, 4 November 1770 . Jommelli had already written three different settings of this text: for Padua ( 1743 ), for Milan ( 1753 ), and for Stuttgart ( 1764 ; repeated with some new music in 1765 ). The opera for Naples ( 1770 ) was an almost entirely new setting. In the versions for Stuttgart and Naples, a new trio for Dircea [Dirce], Matusio [Mathusius] and Timante [Timanthes] (all sopranos) was added at

Article

Harold Rosenthal and Alan Blyth

them screen versions of Rigoletto , Il barbiere di Siviglia , La forza del destino , and Pagliacci , in which he sang both Tonio and Canio; not all his films were musical. Intelligence, musicianship, and acting ability allied with a fine though not very large voice made Gobbi one of the finest singing actors of his generation. He wrote Tito Gobbi: my Life (London, 1979 ) and Tito Gobbi on his World of Italian Opera (London, 1984 ). Gobbi’s distinctive timbre and diction and his ability to color his tone made him an ideal recording artist, as can be heard in his

Article

Sylvan Suskin

Spontini’s in La Vestale , 1807 ) which marks the transition from the older tradition to that of 19th-century grand opera. This spectacular and grandiloquent work typifies the style empire approved by Napoleon. Finally, Zirphile et Fleur de Myrte ( 1818 ), an opéra féerie , illustrated Catel’s desire to experiment, being a work unique at the Académie both in its opéra comique subject matter and in its musical style. Of Catel’s opéras comiques all but one, Wallace, ou Le ménestrel écossais ( 1817 ), are lighthearted farces, in which the plots, structures and

Article

Arsinoe  

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

later two selections from the opera were published and were combined to form a complete set. The recitatives, the feature which distinguished Arsinoe from all earlier English operas, survive in the manuscript of the complete opera ( GB-Lbl ). Clayton had studied in Italy and returned eager to promote opera in the Italian style in England. He brought with him the Arsinoe libretto, first set by Franceschini in 1676 . Since Clayton’s name is absent from the illustrated title-page to the complete set of songs and from some, but not all, of the individual songs it