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Simon McVeigh

harpsichord at the Little Theatre. He left England for the last time in 1792 . Giardini’s importance for opera in London lay primarily in his role in improving orchestral standards. Burney observed that ‘he had not sufficient force or variety to sustain a whole opera’, but his contributions to pasticcios were often enthusiastically applauded. Some surviving arias do indeed add a distinctive melodic piquancy to the bland lyricism of the Italian style. Works all first performed in London; some arias published in London Rosmira (os, 3, S. Stampiglia)

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cosa rara . By early 1796 Martín was back in St Petersburg. He wrote his last opera for Paul I, who had succeeded Catherine, and thereafter supported himself with teaching and administrative work until his death. 2. Operas. Martín’s contemporaries perceived a distinctive quality in his music. The term ‘song style’ perhaps captures the essence of his personal manner: its main features are melody-dominated, three-voice texture, periodicity in rhythm, phrasing and form, and above all a non-dramatic or lyrical nature. Within the limitations of this style, he shows

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Noël Goodwin

Pontardulais , Feb 25, 1948 ). Welsh tenor . He studied at Sheffield University and with Frederick Cox, and after solo appearances with Scottish Opera’s ‘Opera for All’ ( 1971 ) he joined the Glyndebourne chorus ( 1974 ) and sang at the Wexford Festival. During two seasons as principal tenor with South Australian Opera, he created a role in Sitsky’s Fiery Tales ( 1976 ). Thereafter he sang lyric roles with Scottish Opera and the WNO, then studied further in Italy with Ettore Campogalliani and Luigi Ricci. His débuts at Covent Garden in 1979 as Flavio ( Norma ) and

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Peter Kemp

gained widespread recognition touring the USA, Canada, Australasia and the UK in Gilbert and Sullivan operas, also performing principal roles in early French opera with the English Bach Festival. She made her operatic début with the ENO ( 1978 ) as Adele ( Die Fledermaus ), followed by principal roles with the Royal Opera, Scottish, Welsh and Canadian Opera, Lyric Opera of Singapore, New Sadler’s Wells, D’Oyly Carte and the new Carl Rosa company. She has performed in opera, oratorio and in concert at many of the major European festivals including the BBC Proms, Aldeburgh

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Andrew D. McCredie

performing arts, having shown creative flair as a playwright and as a composer. His stage works were produced in Australia, New Zealand and in Britain. Those performed included the comic operas Estrella (Sydney, 27 September 1884 ), Bobadill (Sydney, 22 November 1884 ) and Isadora , re-titled The Black Rover (Melbourne, 7 July 1885 ). All three operas follow the techniques of light opera in which spoken dialogue is interspersed with solo, ensemble and chorus settings, entr’actes and incidental music, often culminating in ensemble finales. A contemporary review of

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Max Loppert

Lohengrin , The Rake’s Progress , Macbeth , Samson et Dalila , Handel’s Samson , Otello , Die Entführung and Verdi’s Attila and Simon Boccanegra . In addition he has worked for all the leading British opera companies (he took charge of the British première of Ligeti’s Le Grand Macabre for ENO in 1982 ), at the Metropolitan, New York, and for Australian Opera; more recently he has undertaken the direction of many plays, in the theatre and on television. His operatic stagings are distinguished by their sharp intellectual focus and, at their best, by an undogmatic

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chief conductor of the Kiev Opera and Ballet Theatre from 1961 until 1967 , when he moved to the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theatre; in 1974 he returned to the Kiev post. He won the 1964 All-Union Conductors’ Competition in Moscow, and the same year was one of the conductors with the Bol′shoy Opera company in its autumn season at La Scala, Milan. He conducted Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades during this visit and was highly praised for the balance of voices and orchestra, and for his evocation of dramatic atmosphere. His opera performances in the USSR were

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Andrea Musk

the inhabitants, now living under the sea, lose all knowledge of their language apart from the sound ‘o’. The text in its entirety is written in an Italian macaronic based upon their only remembered sound. Works texts by composer unless otherwise stated Le phénix ou Ramage et plumage (opera buffa), 1957 Lettres perdues ou La correspondance des gens du monde (opera radiophonico-épistolaire), 1960 La dictée ou Les barbares sont dans la classe (monodrame lyrique), 1961 Le couer révélateur ou Les voliges (opéra de chambre, P. Soupault, after E.A. Poe), 1961

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Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune

Pierre continued his itinerant career in the prince's entourage, accompanying him on all his travels, in Austria and to Paris, Mariemont and Tervuren. He also continued to compose numerous symphonies. As peace approached, however, he began to think of settling, and in 1762 he obtained a seven-year contract as director of the Brussels Grand Théâtre; there he conducted, and was in charge of choosing the repertory: tragedies and comedies of the French theatre, as well as opéras comiques which he had composed ( La bagarre ), arranged ( Les soeurs rivales ) or written

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plot of an opera or drama. The origins of the opera programme lie in the libretto and the playbill, and the dividing line between playbill and programme is hazy. Research into the history of the programme is still at a preliminary stage. From the 17th century, most opera audiences had access during a performance to a copy of the printed libretto, which was usually available for purchase in the theatre (or sometimes given free to subscribers). In many countries, until the late 19th century, a new edition of the libretto was customarily published for each opera production;

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Peter G. Davis and Dennis K. McIntire

He first sang at the Opéra a month later, as Athanaël in Thaïs , and remained a principal baritone of that company as well as singing at the Opéra-Comique. At Paris his roles included Wagner’s Dutchman, Telramund and Gunther, much Verdi, Thomas’ Hamlet and Rossini’s Figaro. Singher settled in the USA and made his Metropolitan début in 1943 as Dapertutto in Les contes d’Hoffmann . He continued as a member of the Metropolitan until 1959 , singing Pelléas, Count Almaviva and Figaro in Figaro , all four baritone roles in Hoffmann , Lescaut in Manon and Mercutio

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Zofia Chechlińska

tsar’s royal chapel, director of the opera and teacher of music theory and head of singing classes at the school of drama. In 1841 , after a visit to Italy, he settled in Paris. His other compositions were mainly sacred vocal and chamber works. He also wrote a two-volume textbook, Szkoła śpiewu konserwatorium muzycznego w Warszawie (‘School of Singing of the Music Conservatory in Warsaw’). Works Operas all operas performed Milan, Scala, unless otherwise stated La testa di bronzo, ossia La campana solitaria (opera comica, 2, F. Romani), 3 Sept 1816

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Matteo Sansone

Ferrari's musical works adhere to the conventions of the mid-19th century. Works Operas all librettos by Ferrari Ugo (dramma lirico, 4), Milan, Teatro di S Radegonda, 5 July 1857 Sofia (dramma lirico, 3), Lodi, Teatro Sociale, March 1866 rev. as Callista Eleonora d’Arborea (dramma lirico, 4), Cagliari, Teatro Civico, March 1871 Other works Requiem Mass (Turin, 1868) c 40 other works, incl. Ave Maria; drawing-room songs; 12 fronde felsinee, pf; patriotic

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other means of satisfying her. In 1729 Handel engaged Strada for London, where she made her début as Adelaida in Lotario and was the leading soprano in all his operas and oratorios until 1737 . She sang more major Handel parts than any other singer, appearing in at least 24 operas, the opera-ballet Terpsicore and many other works, and was the only member of his company who did not go over to the Opera of the Nobility in 1733 . Handel composed many roles for her: Adelaida in Lotario ( 1729 ), Partenope ( 1730 ), Cleofide in Poro ( 1731 ), Fulvia in Ezio

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James L. Jackman

probably often away from Naples. According to Gervasoni and the Biografia he composed four serious operas and three comic ones; oddly, except for Nitteti , no production records have been located for these works, although Florimo said that La vendemmia was his first opera, written for Naples, and Villarosa reported that Il matrimonio per fanatismo was greatly applauded in Rome. In 1790 Parenti went to Paris, where, according to Fétis, he was first employed by the Opéra-Comique to add pieces to a revival of Gluck’s La rencontre imprévue on 1 May. This was given

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Richard Langham Smith

But Guillaume, in love with Hélène, gives her some. Véronique recalls an old legend telling of a cathedral filled with gold: when someone finds it, all the gold in the world will vanish. The centrepiece of the opera, ‘La légende de l’or’, is a ballet. Two groups of dancers try in vain to take a golden image and having failed, they fight. Suddenly Véronique enters and in a clap of thunder the vision disappears. The opera returns to the factory where a new machine has been installed, but a shepherd warns Gaspard that armed villagers are coming to close it. An avalanche

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Study in the Esthetics of Opéra-Comique, 1762–1791 (diss., U. of Pennsylvania, 1982) D. Charlton : Grétry and the Growth of Opéra-Comique (Cambridge, 1986) D. Charlton : ‘The Dramaturgy of Grand Opéra : Some Origins’, IMSCR XIV: Bologna 1987 , 853–8 H. Macdonald : ‘The Prose Libretto’, COJ , 1 (1989), 155–66 M. Noiray : ‘Les créations d’opéra à Paris de 1790 à 1794’, Orphée phrygien: les musiques de la Révolution , ed. J.R. Julien and J.C. Klein (Paris, 1989), 193–203 See also from The New Grove Dictionary of Opera : Nicolas Dezède ; Blaise

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Richard Macnutt

18th century, after which the octavo format used by the other Paris theatres was adopted. From the 1720s comic operas appeared in a new type of publication that was to become popular in England with the advent of ballad opera: the music of some or all of the airs, though usually only the melodic lines, was printed within or as a supplement to the libretto. This format was continued, principally by the publisher Duchesne, in librettos of many comic operas and parodies from the 1730s to the 1770s, especially those of C.-S. Favart. Until the late 1820s publishers had

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Jaco Mijnheer

of short duration as all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are systematically employed. Both the sectional nature of the form and the homorhythmic texture offer stable backgrounds for a rich exploration of orchestral timbres (what the composer called ‘colours’), the most striking aspect of Vivier's late style. These ‘colours’ are in fact chords covering the whole instrumental range and can be understood as the sound of one large instrument, the ensemble. They are composed using a method which imitates electronic ring modulation: the pitches of all the parts are calculated

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Dorinda , Ernelinda , Lucio Vero and Clearte , and probably in Handel's Silla (Metella). She was the only singer who appeared in all 47 performances of Rinaldo between 1711 and 1717 . The four parts Handel composed for her, three of them sorceresses, show that she was an exceptional artist with technical agility, dramatic fire and a compass of two octaves ( c ′ to c ‴). In 1726 she sang at Stuttgart in a comic opera, Pyramus und Thisbe , directed by her husband Giovanni Schiavonetti ( d 19 March 1730 ), a Venetian cellist. ( SartoriL )