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Article

Bryan Gilliam and Charles Youmans

were hardly cheerful times. During work on the new opera, Die Liebe der Danae ( 1938–40 ), Strauss's daughter-in-law was placed under house arrest in Garmisch, and Strauss appealed to Heinz Tietjen, the Berlin Intendant, who had high political connections, to help ensure her and his grandsons' safety. Danae was scheduled for a 1944 première in Salzburg, but cancelled after a dress rehearsal by an order from Goebbels to close all theatres in preparation for total war. In the meantime Strauss composed his final opera, Capriccio ( 1940–41 ), which had its première

Article

chief conductor of the Kiev Opera and Ballet Theatre from 1961 until 1967 , when he moved to the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theatre; in 1974 he returned to the Kiev post. He won the 1964 All-Union Conductors’ Competition in Moscow, and the same year was one of the conductors with the Bol′shoy Opera company in its autumn season at La Scala, Milan. He conducted Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades during this visit and was highly praised for the balance of voices and orchestra, and for his evocation of dramatic atmosphere. His opera performances in the USSR were

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

with Leopold Auer ( 1900–04 ). Having begun his career as a violinist, he turned to conducting in 1905 , first with provincial opera companies, then with Zimin’s opera company, Moscow ( 1908–10 ), and successively at Khar′kiv, Odessa and Kiev until 1916 . He became musical director of the Petrograd People’s Opera ( 1916–18 ), conducted at the Bol′shoy Theatre ( 1923–4 , 1925–8 ), and from 1926 to 1936 was musical director of the opera houses at Baku, Sverdlovsk, Khar′kiv and Kiev. He was artistic director at the Kirov Theatre, Leningrad ( 1936–43 ), when he conducted

Article

Noël Goodwin

Colón, Buenos Aires, and his first opera performance in the USA with the Chicago Lyric Opera in 1969 . He generally preferred to pursue a freelance career, but he spent influential periods as musical director of the Royal Liverpool PO, 1957–63 , and of the LPO, 1962–6 . He was appointed musical director of the Huddersfield Choral Society in 1973 and later held four major appointments simultaneously: at the Cologne Opera from 1978 , the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels, from 1981 , the BBC SO, 1982–9 , and the San Francisco Opera from 1986 , where, at the time

Article

José A. Bowen

Ballet and Opera, he began his studies at the Leningrad Conservatory. He graduated from Vladimir Shcherbachyov's composition class in 1930 (the year he first conducted at the conservatory) and Aleksandr Gauk's conducting class in 1931 . He also studied conducting with Nikolay Malko. After a year as an assistant conductor ( 1931 ) at the Leningrad Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre (now the Kirov), he became conductor there ( 1932–8 ). He made his début with the Leningrad PO in 1931 and was a regular guest conductor from 1934 . After winning the All-Union Conductors'

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

conducted the Paris Conservatoire Orchestra from 1923 to 1925 before returning to the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées as musical director ( 1925–7 ). Bigot’s most important appointments were as president and director of the Concerts Lamoureux ( 1935–50 ), as principal conductor of the Opéra-Comique ( 1936–47 ), and as a radio conductor. He was responsible for the orchestral and operatic broadcasts of the Compagnie Française de Radiophonie from 1927 to 1935 , and from 1947 until his death was principal conductor of the ORTF. From 1947 to 1958 he also directed a conductors’

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

was principal conductor of the Moscow Philharmonia SO and of the All-Union Radio SO. From 1929 to 1936 he taught the orchestra class at the Leningrad Conservatory, where he was made a professor in 1934 . Samosud played a distinguished role as artistic director at the Malïy and Bol′shoy theatres, where his broad artistic perspective, inventiveness and organizational ability were given free rein. He championed many new operas by Soviet composers, confirming the Malïy as the ‘laboratory of Soviet opera’. He was responsible for the premières there of Shostakovich's

Article

Alena Němcová

and conductor in the Brno Opera in 1920 , making his début with Gluck’s Orfeo , and in 1925 gave the première of Martinů’s ballet Who is the Most Powerful in the World? , which drew him towards new music. During the 1925–6 season he was an organist and accompanist in Philadelphia. He then worked in Czechoslovak Radio, where he conducted the (abridged) première of Janáček’s Fate in 1934 , and in 1937 became chief conductor of the Brno RSO, that year touring the USSR and Latvia. From 1929 to 1931 he was conductor of Brno Opera, where in 1930 he gave the

Article

Sérgio Azevedo

Gregoriano de Lisboa ( 1980–90 ) and the Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa (from 1985 ), of which he is the present director and head of composition. In 1984 he became conductor of the Portuguese Youth Orchestra. Bochmann has composed a large number of works in almost all genres except opera, and he has written regularly for young musicians and amateurs. Until the 1980s his music used many of the techniques of the avant garde of the 1950s and 1960s; subsequently, contact with musicians without specialist experience of contemporary music has resulted in greater

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky and Victor Ledin

and Cheremukhin’s Kalinki . At the First All-Union Competition of Conductors in 1938 , he was awarded an honorary diploma for his high professional skill and virtuoso technique. A Soviet music critic of the time wrote ‘I was particularly impressed by the young conductor’s ability to work with the orchestra. Eschewing wordiness, Kondrashin achieves understanding by precise gesture rather than oratory’. In 1943 he moved to the Bol′shoy Theatre, where contacts with Samosud, Pazovsky and Golovanov helped to improve his opera performances and widen his practical experience;

Article

Philippe Mercier

chamber music avoids theatrical effects. Fétis commented that, in spite of many strong sections and good musical organization, Pauwels’s operas are hindered by their weak librettos. Marie-Anne-Jeanne (or Jeanne-Catherine) Pauwels ( 1795–1839 ), a pianist and composer active in Brussels, was apparently unrelated to this family. Works printed works published in Brussels, unless otherwise indicated Stage All first performed at Brussels, Théâtre de la Monnaie La maisonnette dans les bois (oc, 1), 3 Aug 1796 L’auteur malgré lui (oc, 1, Claparède)

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

and led the viola section of the opera studio. After a period in the orchestra of the Malïy Opera Theatre, Leningrad, he turned to conducting in 1935 . In 1938 he was appointed principal conductor at the Erevan Opera and Ballet Theatre, where he played an important part in the development of Armenian national opera. Displaying a fine instinct for music drama and operatic character, T’avrizyan aimed at blending all the constituent elements of opera, so that the stage and musical characterizations were closely linked. Among the operas he conducted were Tchukhatjian’s

Article

Patrick J. Smith and Nicola Badolato

Dec 15, 2002 ). American opera administrator and conductor . He was educated at Yale University (BA 1950 ), and was an accompanist, opera coach, and conductor in New York from 1951 to 1956 . In 1957 he founded the Santa Fe Opera Company in New Mexico and became its general director and a staff conductor. Almost wholly owing to Crosby’s vision, the company established itself as an innovative and dynamic company, presenting many American and world premieres. To increase accessibility for American audiences, Crosby staged all operas in English; staging, lighting

Article

David Cummings

composition, piano and choral singing at the Milan Conservatory, graduating in 1933 . He was successful in Italy for more than 20 years, giving a wide range of operas at all the major houses. He conducted Rigoletto at the end of the 1955–6 season at Covent Garden, returning early the following season for a Ballo in maschera that was described as ‘noisy and violent’ (H. D. Rosenthal, Two Centuries of Opera at Covent Garden , 1958 ). Quadri conducted Italian repertory in Vienna (Volksoper and Staatsoper) from 1957 . Don Pasquale , Tosca and Fedora are among

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

tsar’s royal chapel, director of the opera and teacher of music theory and head of singing classes at the school of drama. In 1841 , after a visit to Italy, he settled in Paris. His other compositions were mainly sacred vocal and chamber works. He also wrote a two-volume textbook, Szkoła śpiewu konserwatorium muzycznego w Warszawie (‘School of Singing of the Music Conservatory in Warsaw’). Works Operas all operas performed Milan, Scala, unless otherwise stated La testa di bronzo, ossia La campana solitaria (opera comica, 2, F. Romani), 3 Sept 1816

Article

Noël Goodwin and Richard Wigmore

ry school for talented children, and then conducting at the conservatory, graduating in 1965 . He began conducting at the Malïy Opera Theatre, Leningrad, making his début with La traviata . After winning the Soviet All-Union Conductors’ Competition in 1968 he became music director of the Leningrad SO the next year. From 1977 (the year of his London début, with the RPO) he was artistic director and chief conductor of the Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre in Leningrad, and he made his Covent Garden début with the Kirov company in 1987 , conducting his own productions

Article

Ferenc Bónis

of the theatre. Heinisch was one of the pioneers of opera in Hungary, and his compositions and arrangements contributed significantly to the enlargement of the repertory of the Hungarian theatre. He composed mainly in the international opera style of his time but could also express himself in the verbunkos style. Although possessing little originality himself, he was one of the forerunners of the ‘father of Hungarian opera’, Erkel. His compositions and arrangements, all left in manuscript, include an opera, three ballets, a pantomimed comedy, incidental music and

Article

Tom Wine

ly creative language. He wrote his own librettos for all four of his operas: Tartuffe (premiered in 1980 by the San Francisco Opera); John Brown (premiered 2008 by the Lyric Opera of Kansas City); The Rivals ; and Pride and Prejudice (premieres of the latter not announced in 2010 ). His symphonies were premiered by the San Francisco Symphony under Josef Krips and led to an all-Mechem symphonic concert by the USSR Radio-Television orchestra in 1991 . Works ( selective list ) Opera (all librettos by Mechem) Tartuffe, 1980

Article

Thérèse Radic

and of classical and pre-classical operas, particularly those of Gluck, Rameau, and Handel, as well as the Baroque music of Malta. He has also edited the complete works of Michael Christian Festing and of Carl Linger, the complete sacred music of Nicolò Isouard, and the complete symphonies of Samuel Wesley. His large repertory includes all the Monteverdi and Mozart operas. He has conducted for the BBC, the Netherlands Opera, in Germany, Italy, China, and New Zealand, and at the Hong Kong Festival. In Australia he has conducted opera at the Adelaide Festival and is a

Article

Adeodatas Tauragis

the J. Naujalis music school ( 1920–33 ), then at the conservatory, where he conducted the orchestra and directed opera class; in 1948 he was appointed professor. As head of the music section of the Lietuvių Meno Kūrėjų Draugija (Lithuanian Creative Artist's Society), along with the famous singer Kipras Petrauskas and others he co-founded the Opera Theatre and was its principal conductor during the years 1920–41 and 1944–8 . More than 30 operas and standard works of the symphonic repertory were performed under his baton. In 1948 he became the first Chairman