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Susan Pratt Walton

established a music and dance school called Penyuarga (Penyuara Gamelan) with the help of two prominent musicians in Surakarta, Sutarman and Prawotosaputro. The leading singer and dancer in the Mangkunegaran palace, she was particularly acclaimed in the genres of langen driyan (all-female dance-opera), temembangan (classical sung poetry) and wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre); she also composed her own vocal cèngkok (melodic patterns) and wangsalan (two-line vocal texts). Her vocal style was marked by intelligence, deep feeling and elegant simplicity. She made

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was hired as a dancer and understudy to Mlle Allard at the Opéra, making a successful début in Les caractères de la danse . On 9 May 1762 , standing in for an injured Mlle Allard, she took the principal role of Terpsichore in the prologue of Fuzelier's ballet Les fêtes grecques et romaines . By 1763 she was première danseuse noble at the Opéra and quickly became one of the favourite dancers of the time. The choreographer Noverre observed that she ‘danced tastefully and put expression and feeling into all her movements’, while Baron Grimm found her simplicity ‘artless

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Maureen Needham

Nobili, Pisa, where his father Carlo was ballet-master. After touring Italy, 1796–8 , he went to Paris to study with J.-F. Coulon, making his début at the Opéra in La caravane ( 1799 ). He worked at the Royal Opera, Stockholm, in 1803–4 , and at the Hoftheater, Vienna, in 1805 , before undertaking an extended European tour. Taglioni’s importance lies mainly in his choreography for the premières, all at the Paris Opéra, of Auber’s Le dieu et la bayadère ( 1830 ) and Gustave III ( 1833 ), Meyerbeer’s Robert le diable ( 1831 ) and Les Huguenots ( 1836 ), and Halévy’s

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Maureen Needham

danced in others. He was the ballet-master of Pierre Perrin’s Académies d’Opéra, creating dances for Cambert’s Pomone ( 1671 ). As ballet-master for Lully’s Opéra during the 1670s and 80s, he choreographed dances for the premières of Lully’s L’impatience ( 1661 ), La naissance de Vénus ( 1665 ), Alceste ( 1674 ), Atys ( 1676 ), Isis ( 1677 ), Le triomphe de l’Amour ( 1681 , with Pécour) and Ballet de la Jeunesse ( 1686 ). After Lully’s death ( 1687 ) Beauchamps left the Opéra to choreograph and compose music for ballets at the Jesuit colleges ( 1669–97

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Francis in 1765 closed all theatres in Vienna, and prevented performances in Innsbruck of Angiolini’s last ballet to music by Gluck, Achille in Sciro , based on Metastasio’s libretto. Shortly thereafter Angiolini succeeded Hilverding at St Petersburg, making his début ( September 1766 ) with another ballet derived from Metastasio, Le départ d’Enée , ou Didon abandonnée , to his own music. During this stay in Russia Angiolini presented several new ballets, restaged others from Vienna, and composed dances for a number of Italian operas. He worked next ( 1772–3

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artists, including Balbi, to his court at Brussels. Balbi created a grand ‘balet a entrées’ in honour of the wedding of Philip IV and Maria Anna of Austria. Entitled Le balet du monde , it was presented in Brussels during Carnival 1650 , between the acts of Gioseffo Zamponi’s opera Ulisse all’isola di Circe . Balbi returned to Florence in 1650 and with the Febiarmonici staged Cavalli’s La Deidamia , first performed in Venice at the Teatro Novissimo in 1644 . During the carnival of 1651 Balbi was once again in Venice, where he created the choreography and stage

Article

Sarah McCleave

Sallé is understood to have performed in all of Handel’s operas of the 1734–5 Covent Garden season. The text of Terpsicore , apparently the first danced prologue appended to a London opera seria ( Il pastor fido ), indicates that Sallé, as the muse of dance, was to depict various passions. Her performances in Alcina excited particular reaction: on one occasion spectators hissed her costume (Prévost D’Exiles); on another, a riot ensued when George II denied the audience an encore. Sallé returned to the Paris Opéra in the summer of 1735 to assume her first

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series (all with music by Gluck) – Don Juan, ou le festin de pierre , Citera assediata , Alexandre et Roxane , Sémiramis and Ifigenia in Aulide (lost) — were based on well-known plays, operas or myths. By Angiolini’s own account the lieto fine of his Ifigenia ballet was in response to audience displeasure with the grim dénouement of Sémiramis . (Angiolini later staged a five-act version of his Sémiramis ballet, to his own music.) During this same period Angiolini contributed ballets to opéras comiques , and to opere serie , including reform operas by Traetta

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J.G. Prod’homme and Marian Smith

‘the extreme difficulty of taking up the violin in the middle of a scene and playing it at a given moment, without time to make all the preparations that a musician never neglects before starting his solo’ ( Le constitutionnel , 22 January 1849 ). He produced numerous ballets in Lisbon ( 1854–6 ), was premier maître de ballet at the St Petersburg Imperial Theatres from 1859 to 1870 and was a frequent guest choreographer at the Paris Opéra in the summers. He thus became the dominant figure of both Russian and French ballet for most of the 1860s, and choreographed

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freemasons in 1789 . Lyonnet listed several 19th-century actors named Deshayes. Works Stage all performed in Paris; all printed works published in Paris Le faux serment, ou La matrone de Gonesse (cmda, 2, L.H. Dancourt), Beaujolais, 31 Dec 1785 (1786), excerpts (1786 and n.d.) La défaite du serpent Python par Apollon (scène lyrique, 1, Renou), Société des Enfants d'Apollon, 1 June 1786 Le paysan à prétention (opéra bouffon, 1, Eyrand), Beaujolais, 12 June 1786, romance (n.d.) L'auteur à la mode, ou Le mari

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Neal Zaslaw

choreography and music for the ballets in about 50 stage works in which he and his wife danced, including Graun’s operas Coriolano ( 1749 ), Fetonte ( 1750 ), Armida ( 1751 ), Britannico ( 1751 ), Mithridate ( 1751 ), Orfeo ( 1752 ), Semiramide ( 1754 ), Ezio ( 1755 ), Montezuma ( 1755 ) and Merope ( 1756 ), and Agricola’s Cleofide ( 1754 ). (The ballet music in the DDT edition of Montezuma is by Denis, not Graun.) The quality of opera and ballet at the Prussian court declined after the Seven Years War, and Denis left Berlin in 1765 . If the French

Article

Susan Au

comprised only African-American dancers, it was integrated in 1962 , and his artistic vision became more universal in scope, exploring the emotions and dilemmas that all humans share. After retiring as a performer in 1965 , he devoted his energies to choreography, both for his own company and others. He created dances for Samuel Barber’s Antony and Cleopatra , which inaugurated the Metropolitan Opera’s new home at Lincoln Center in 1966 , and for Leonard Bernstein’s Mass ( 1971 ), marking the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington

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Barbara Palfy

but in later years he braved the traditional concert repertory, setting works such as Brahms Waltzes , Christmas and Easter Oratorio s, and Bach’s St. Matthew Passion . For extra income in the company’s early years, Weidman did successful choreography for plays ( Lysistrata ), operas (e.g., Aida ), and musicals (e.g., As Thousands Cheer ). After the demise of the Humphrey-Weidman Company he formed the Theatre Dance Company (later Charles Weidman Dance Company) on the West Coast and, upon returning to New York, Expression of Two Arts Theatre with artist Mikhail

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Nils Schiørring

many of his ballets. After travelling in the late 1780s to Paris, Dresden, Berlin and Prague (where he met Mozart), Schall returned to Copenhagen in 1792 to take Hartmann’s place as Konzertmeister at the Opera, working successively under J.A.P. Schulz and F.L.A. Kunzen. In 1795 Schall became composer to the Royal Ballet and in 1818 music director at the Opera, where he remained until 1834 ; he conducted the première of Weber’s Freischütz overture there in 1820 . Though self-taught as a composer, Schall was rated highly by his contemporaries, and his experience

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her, and associate artistic director, working alongside George Balanchine. Among his ballets of this period were The Cage ( 1951 ; Igor Stravinsky), Afternoon of a Faun ( 1953 ; Claude Debussy), and The Concert ( 1956 ; Frédéric Chopin), all of which remain in the company’s repertory. He directed Aaron Copland’s opera The Tender Land in 1954 . He formed his own company, Ballets U.S.A., in 1958 , and after its demise he returned to work on Broadway and in television. His golden touch created hit musicals such as The King and I ( 1951 ), Pajama Game (

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Claude Conyers

See Me Tonight ( 1995 ; songs of Stephen Foster), Going Away Party ( 1990 ; music by Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys), and his production of the Virgil Thomson/Gertrude Stein opera Four Saints in Three Acts ( 2000 ). He has also created works to the music of John Adams, Samuel Barber, George Gershwin, Lou Harrison, Charles Ives, Harry Partch, Richard Rodgers, and Paul Simon –Americans all. Bibliography J. Acocella : Mark Morris (New York, 1993) J. Morgenroth : Speaking of Dance: Twelve Contemporary Choreographers on Their Craft (New York

Article

Jérôme de La Gorce

partners in the Opéra since 1680 : when his contract with Vigarani expired he preferred not to renew it but to employ a salaried designer for his productions, turning for the purpose to Jean Berain, dessinateur de la chambre et du cabinet du roi . Lully was as shrewd a businessman as ever in his management of the Palais Royal theatre. While he gave standing room to the humbler part of the audience for only 30 sols, he charged higher prices than any other theatre in Paris for the seats reserved for more prosperous opera lovers. The highest price of all, one louis d'or

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Claude Conyers

dancing by their father and grandfather and trained in ballet by various teachers. All three were instrumental in establishing and popularizing ballet in the western United States. Willam Farr Christensen ( b Brigham City, UT , Aug 27, 1902 ; d Salt Lake City , Oct 14, 2001 ) was the eldest of the brothers. After touring the vaudeville circuit, he opened a ballet school in 1932 in Portland, Oregon, from which sprang the Portland Ballet. In 1937 he joined the San Francisco Opera Ballet, where, as ballet-master, he staged the first full-length American productions

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Gabriella Biagi Ravenni

Boccherini (Lucca, 1927), 10–11 A. Della Corte : Un italiano all’estero: Antonio Salieri (Turin, 1936), 104–15 E. I. Luin : ‘Italiani per il mondo: Giangastone Boccherini’, Rivista italiana del teatro , 7 (1943), 63–6 G. Arrighi : ‘Giovan Gastone Boccherini’, Lucca: rassegna del Comune , 6 (1962), 13–23 G. de Rothschild : Luigi Boccherini: sa vie, son oeuvre (Paris, 1962; Eng. trans., 1965) G. Biagi Ravenni : ‘Calzabigi e dintorni: Boccherini, Angiolini, la Toscana e Vienna’, La figura e l’opera di Ranieri de’ Calzabigi: Livorno 1987 , 29–71