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in 1750 , and in November 1753 Jommelli was appointed Ober-Kapellmeister. For the next 16 years he wrote and supervised virtually all operas at the court, and during that time assembled one of the best orchestras in Europe. Carl Eugen authorized extensive renovations to the court theatre in Stuttgart between 1756 and 1758 , and after being forced to move to Ludwigsburg he built a new Schlosstheater ( 1765–6 ). His tastes in opera favoured French-inspired spectacle and dance; Noverre served as his ballet-master from 1760 until 1767 , when a mounting deficit

Article

Edmond Strainchamps

Solerti, 1904 ) recalled that Corsi’s house ‘was always open, as though a public academy, to all who took a lively interest in the liberal arts … noblemen, literati and eminent poets and musicians’, and named Tasso, Chiabrera, Marino, Monteverdi and Effrem as some of the guests there; but more important was the regular attendance of Florentines, especially Ottavio Rinuccini and Jacopo Peri, whose discussions and experiments led to what is now regarded as the birth of opera. In winter 1594–5 Corsi and Rinuccini asked Peri to complete Corsi’s musical setting, in

Article

David Johnson

1707 . From the age of 26 onwards he seems to have had no time for serious composition: his main surviving musical works were all written by about 1703 . He succeeded his father as second baronet of Penicuik in 1722 . In later life the erstwhile composer contented himself with patronizing others' musical efforts; an important protégé was the writer Allan Ramsay ( 1686–1757 ), whose song-lyric Wat ye wha I met yestreen and ballad opera The Gentle Shepherd celebrate the Midlothian countryside around Clerk's estate. Under Corelli's tutelage (on which he made

Article

Lowell Lindgren

1716 to May 1718 . By 1710 a theatre had been built in his residence, but only during Carnival 1711 was it used for operas (both by Caldara). In October 1713 Ruspoli purchased the Palazzo dei Caetani on the Via del Corso and moved there. In 1717 he sold an unused theatre to Count Antonio Alibert, and by the end of 1718 he had terminated his contracts with Gasparini and the five instrumentalists he employed. Yet he remained active in opera productions. Gasparini continued to live in a house on property owned by Ruspoli until 1720 , and was virtually the only

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to the season in advance. She was partly responsible for the break with the tradition of giving all operas in Italian; she imposed the re-engagement of Melba after her initial near-failure, and later sustained Melba’s virtual control over casting. Herself unmusical, she was fired by enthusiasm for her friends among musicians. Bibliography E. F. Benson : ‘Three Great Ladies and Others’, As we Were (London, 1930) H. Rosenthal : Two Centuries of Opera at Covent Garden (London, 1958) J. Hetherington : Melba (London, 1967)

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E. Eugene Helm and Derek McCulloch

in 1767 . From March 1756 to December 1764 no operas were produced at the Berlin Opera House; and from the end of the war to Frederick’s death in 1786 almost all the opera productions there were revivals of pre-war works. C.H. Graun died in 1759 ; his place was taken after the war by Agricola, but without the title of Kapellmeister. Agricola mounted three operas of his own, but these were mere imitations of Graun’s and were held in open contempt by Frederick. When Agricola died in 1774 the direction of the opera passed to the unwilling C.F.C. Fasch, again without

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Frederick II, King of Prussia (opera) [ Friedrich II ; Frederick the Great ] ( b Berlin , Jan 24, 1712 ; d Potsdam , Aug 17, 1786 ). German monarch and patron of the arts . His father Friedrich Wilhelm I, violently opposed his artistic leanings; when Frederick finally acceded to the throne on 31 May 1740 he plunged into social and political reforms, military conquest and the rehabilitation of Prussian arts and letters, all at once. He was determined to bring into his own precincts the same operatic magnificence he had witnessed 12 years

Article

Nicholas Temperley

professional staff, from whom he expected obsequious obedience. He kept control of the RAM concerts, insisting on programmes of Italian operatic music and allowing no English compositions but his own. The Times in 1837 complained of these programmes scathingly: Above all, we would exclude all the compositions to which the name of Lord Burghersh is attached. They belong to no school, have no sort of merit, and can only serve to pervert the taste, such as it is, of the pupils …. As he is known to be absolute dictator in the affairs of the Academy, the making himself

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer and Andrew H. Weaver

wrote Italian poetry) founded literary academies on the Italian model in Vienna. Ferdinand III composed in all of the major genres of his day; his works, most of which are now lost, include motets, settings of liturgical texts (masses, hymns, Marian antiphons, Vespers psalms, litanies, and a Stabat Mater ), sonatas, Italian and German songs, and an Italian opera (a complete list of known works is in Saunders, 1996 ). Among his surviving compositions are the opera ( Drama musicum ) (in A-Wn ; extracts ed. in Adler, ii), a 13-voice mass (in A-KR ), a five-voice Litaniae

Article

April Fitzlyon

outside Russia living with, or near, the Viardots, principally in France and Baden-Baden. Always passionately fond of music, he became very well informed about it through Pauline Viardot. He was personally acquainted with almost all the well-known musicians of his day, both in Russia and in the West. He contributed occasional articles on opera to Russian periodicals, and wrote librettos in French for operettas set to music by Pauline Viardot and performed by her pupils. One of these, Le dernier sorcier , orchestrated by Eduard Lassen (and, perhaps, Liszt) was publicly

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Rudolf Schnitzler and Herbert Seifert

support for opera productions, including the extravagant expenditure of about 300,000 florins for the performance of Antonio Cesti’s Il pomo d’oro (as opposed to an average of about 20,000 florins per opera production and the average yearly salary of 2000 florins for the Kapellmeister); the judicious hiring of librettists, composers and stage designers, among them the dominating collaborators Nicolò Minato, Draghi, Schmelzer and L.O. Burnacini; participation in performances by members of the imperial family; the emperor’s personal interest and support: these all resulted

Article

Lowell Lindgren

employed, including Pasquini ( 1677 – c 1710 ), Amadei ( 1685–1708 ) and Handel ( 1707 ). His musicians played for the occasional oratorios and weekly ‘academies’ that he began to sponsor in 1677 . During Pamphili's creative years all the popes except Alexander VIII (who sent him to Bologna) successfully restricted or banned public opera performances in Rome. This may well explain why Pamphili wrote mainly oratorios and cantatas. His oratorio productions in Rome were sumptuous, as witnessed by the number of instrumentalists: 32 for Scarlatti's Il trionfo della gratia

Article

Roger J.V. Cotte

depleted estate, and has since been untraced. Several portraits of Bagge are known, one of them engraved by Nicolas Cochin (reproduced in Terry) and another portraying him with a violin ‘comme un ménétrier’. Works all printed works published in Paris Orchestral 3 sinfonie (1788) 4 vn concs., all (n.d.) vn conc., F-Pn ; 2 symphonies concertantes, D-B Chamber 6 quatuors concertants, str qt, op.1 (1773) 6 trio, 2 vn, b (n.d.) Airs de Marlborough variés