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his first 12-note works (apart from the three songs of op.48) since the opera, and with it the culminating productions of this period of his work. They are cast in the respective three- and four-movement moulds traditional in such works, but the individual movements abandon strict Classical layout. The first-movement recapitulations no longer correspond to the measure of the expositions, but are engulfed in the development, which continues unchecked to the close. The forward urge that marks all Schoenberg’s music asserts itself so forcefully here that a return to s

Article

Cadence  

William S. Rockstro, George Dyson, William Drabkin, Harold S. Powers and Julian Rushton

the third pair of chords. The expansion of the sonata in 19th-century instrumental music, and especially the development of musical continuity in German Romantic opera (Wagner’s ‘unendliche Melodie’), brought to the interrupted cadence a structural significance that had hitherto been the exclusive property of the perfect and imperfect cadences ( ex.16 ). By contrast Richard Strauss, whose opera acts and tone poems were through-composed but were nevertheless subdivided by cadence-points, developed a kind of counterpart to the interrupted cadence, in which the

Article

carries all the qualities of a leitmotif , the ‘Tristan’ chord has been viewed (by Kurth and others) as the basis of a ‘crisis’ in Romantic harmony. For although it can be explained in ordinary functional harmony as an augmented (French) 6th ( f–b–d ♯′–a′ ) with the g ♯′ as a long appoggiatura to the a′ , or alternatively as an added 6th chord in first inversion with chromatic alterations (e.g. d–f–a + b , inverted to f–a–b–d′ with lowered 3rd and raised 6th = f–a♭–b–d ♯′ ), it seems to have its own harmonic significance in this work and later operas of Wagner

Article

Mode  

Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones and Allan Marett

become dha-ni-pa and ga-ma-ri ]. These Sārang elements are found in almost all rāg of the Kānaḍā type. The addition of dha in the ni-pa component to make the uttarāṅga descent in Darbārī Kānaḍā is not a matter of a different scale-type for Darbārī than for Sārang . The rāga Sahānā ( ex.39d ) uses śuddha dha , and Nāyakī ( ex.39c ), like Sārang itself, has no sixth degree at all. Nonetheless, all three are clearly Kānaḍā melodic types, and a fortiori all three show a chāyā (‘tinge’) of Sārang in the uttarāṅga because of the

Article

Ian D. Bent

Reviser Anthony Pople

British Library, London All the music examples in Czerny’s School are attributed (they represent the generation of Beethoven, Hummel, Rossini, Méhul etc.), and many analyses of whole compositions are included. The treatise was unique in being the first independent manual of form and instrumentation. It took for granted a grounding in harmony and counterpoint, and concerned itself exclusively with the development of ideas and the formation of compositions ‘from the most simple Theme to the Grand Symphony, and from the shortest Song to the Opera and Oratorio’ (i, p.iii)

Article

Alfred Mann, J. Kenneth Wilson and Peter Urquhart

Beethoven’s Canons, from Letters, Cards, Album Leaves, and Other Personal Documents , describes the nature of a canonic output that is extremely modest compared with the canonic writing of 18th-century masters. Neither the fulfilment of the symphonic ideal nor the rise of Romantic song and opera in the 19th century offered a favourable climate for the canonic art, and the literature of canon remained limited to small occasional pieces and academic examples. The latter, however, achieved relative importance, especially in the works of Schumann, through the reawakened interest

Article

George Dyson and William Drabkin

1946 , 1972 ; but see Bent). True chromaticism had its first flowering in the secular music of the second half of the 16th century, above all in the Italian madrigal (Rore, Marenzio and Gesualdo), where it went hand in hand with expressive, affective text-setting. This development was transported to England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and also had a profound influence on secular monody and the beginnings of opera in Italy around the turn of the 17th century. In the Baroque era the use of chromaticism was closely linked with the Doctrine of the Affections

Article

Harmony  

Richard Cohn, Brian Hyer, Carl Dahlhaus, Julian Anderson and Charles Wilson

sonores ), each of which is then taken and in turn transposed onto each of the component pitch classes of another segment, the product of the ‘multiplication’ consisting of all the pitches of each of these transpositions combined ( see Boulez, Pierre, §3 ). In practice the distinctiveness of the harmonic results obtained from multiplication depends on the intervallic constitution, and above all the density, of the harmonic objects in question. Where the sonorities being multiplied share a concentration of the same interval class, that concentration will be reinforced

Article

Jonathan King

wrote in a much-quoted letter that ‘in an opera the poetry must be altogether the obedient daughter of the music’. For much of the time in Mozart’s operas, though, while the poetry may be subservient to the music, both the poetry and the music (together with the text-setting practices that bind them together) are themselves subservient to the drama. This relationship was most fully worked out in the 19th and 20th centuries in writings by and about Wagner (for a discussion and extensive bibliography of word–music relations in opera see Trowell, in GroveO ). Though less

Article

James Webster

Webster : ‘The Bass Part in Haydn’s Early String Quartets’, MQ , 63 (1977), 390–424 R.J. Hoyt : The Bassline in Atonal Music: its Relationship to Melodic and Harmonic Structure (diss., U. of Pennsylvania, 1979) M. Cyr : ‘Basses and basse continue in the Orchestra of the Paris Opéra, 1700–1764’, EMc , 10 (1982), 155–70 W. Salmen , ed.: Kontrabass und Bassfunktion (Innsbruck, 1986) L. Dreyfus : Bach's Continuo Group: Players and Practices in his Vocal Works (Cambridge, MA, 1987) C.-H. Mahling : ‘Con o senza fagotto? Bemerkungen zur Besetzung der “Bassi”

Article

David Fuller

fugue ‘accompanies’ the subject, but in principle all the voices are equal and the countersubject may well be more prominent than the subject. In one sense, the added parts of a cantus firmus composition are an ‘accompaniment’, yet the pre-existing tune may be so stretched out and buried as to become less a melody than a kind of Schenkerian Urlinie . One might even postulate layers of accompanimental function, as for the Continuo accompaniment of the orchestral accompaniment of an opera. To discuss accompaniment in all its ramifications would be to write a history

Article

M. Jennifer Bloxam

which all movements of the cycle are governed by the same rhythmic and melodic formulation of the cantus firmus (an extension of the isorhythmic structure of the motet), while the Mass Rex seculorum , attributed to both Power and Dunstaple, allows the tenor cantus firmus a different rhythmic disposition and melodic ornamentation in each movement. Cantus firmus ‘fixed melody’ fester Gesang canto fermo 4. 15th century. (i) The cyclic mass.: Ex.3 Varied paraphrase of a plainchant melody, Du Fay, Kyrie I from Missa ‘Ave regina celorum’. From Guillelmi Dufay opera omnia

Article

Paul Griffiths, Mark Lindley and Ioannis Zannos

1920s onwards. Hába also used smaller intervals, particularly the sixth-tone, and wrote a great many microtonal works, from piano pieces and string quartets to a full-scale opera. The capacity of string instruments to play microtones is limited only by the player’s ear, but Hába’s music required the construction of special instruments, including quarter-tone pianos, harmonium, clarinet and trumpet, all made in the 1920s and 30s. In the 1950s Carrillo had pianos built to play in every integral division of the whole tone down to the sixteenth-tone. Ives and Vïshnegradsky

Article

Sigalia Dostrovsky, Murray Campbell, James F. Bell and C. Truesdell

royale des sciences et des belles lettres de Berlin , 20 (1764), 165–73; repr. in Opera omnia , III/i (Leipzig, 1926), 508–15 L. Euler : ‘De motu vibratorio tympanorum, Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis petropolitanae , 10 (1764), 243–60; repr. in Opera omnia , II/x, ed. F. Stüssi (Leipzig, 1947), 344–59 L. Euler : ‘Du véritable caractère de la musique moderne’, Mémoires de l Académie royale des sciences et des belles lettres de Berlin , 20 (1764), 174–99; repr. in Opera omnia , III/i (Leipzig, 1926), 516–39 L. Euler : Eclaircissements plus détaillés

Article

Brian Hyer

who rules over the other harmonies and the dominant as his vassal, going before his liege to announce and prepare for his arrival, an idea he embroidered at considerable length. Momigny, in contrast, had earlier imagined the tonic as a queen: the tonic is ‘the purpose of all purposes, the end of all ends’, for ‘it is to her that the sceptre of the musical empire is entrusted’ ( Encyclopédie méthodique , 1818 ). Perhaps the most elaborate of these social simulacra, however, is one of the earliest. In Grundregeln zur Tonordnung insgemein ( 1755 ), Riepel compares the

Article

Laurence Libin

wind instruments carries an aura of irrational, beastial behaviour. Reflecting this, Castiglione ( Il Cortegiano , 1528 ) recommended that men play recorders and flutes only privately and with tact and good judgement, especially in the presence of women, ‘for it is, after all, impossible to imagine all the things that can happen’. The danger of playing the aulos or bagpipe (at risk of hyperventilation and intoxication) is further exemplified by the myths of Marsyas and Dionysus. Equally ancient beliefs colour gender attitudes towards many instruments in Asia. In China