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Paul Griffiths, Mark Lindley and Ioannis Zannos

1920s onwards. Hába also used smaller intervals, particularly the sixth-tone, and wrote a great many microtonal works, from piano pieces and string quartets to a full-scale opera. The capacity of string instruments to play microtones is limited only by the player’s ear, but Hába’s music required the construction of special instruments, including quarter-tone pianos, harmonium, clarinet and trumpet, all made in the 1920s and 30s. In the 1950s Carrillo had pianos built to play in every integral division of the whole tone down to the sixteenth-tone. Ives and Vïshnegradsky


Sigalia Dostrovsky, Murray Campbell, James F. Bell and C. Truesdell

royale des sciences et des belles lettres de Berlin , 20 (1764), 165–73; repr. in Opera omnia , III/i (Leipzig, 1926), 508–15 L. Euler : ‘De motu vibratorio tympanorum, Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis petropolitanae , 10 (1764), 243–60; repr. in Opera omnia , II/x, ed. F. Stüssi (Leipzig, 1947), 344–59 L. Euler : ‘Du véritable caractère de la musique moderne’, Mémoires de l Académie royale des sciences et des belles lettres de Berlin , 20 (1764), 174–99; repr. in Opera omnia , III/i (Leipzig, 1926), 516–39 L. Euler : Eclaircissements plus détaillés


Laurence Libin

wind instruments carries an aura of irrational, beastial behaviour. Reflecting this, Castiglione ( Il Cortegiano , 1528 ) recommended that men play recorders and flutes only privately and with tact and good judgement, especially in the presence of women, ‘for it is, after all, impossible to imagine all the things that can happen’. The danger of playing the aulos or bagpipe (at risk of hyperventilation and intoxication) is further exemplified by the myths of Marsyas and Dionysus. Equally ancient beliefs colour gender attitudes towards many instruments in Asia. In China