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Article

Harold Rosenthal

, accompanied by a piano. By the 1966–7 season there were three Opera for All groups, each comprising 12 members; one was based at the London Opera Centre, one at Scottish Opera and one at the WNO. The increased touring commitments of the last two companies, and expanded touring by the English Opera Group and Phoenix Opera, resulted in the two regional groups being absorbed into the larger Scottish and Welsh companies as small touring ensembles with chamber orchestra. The London-based group retained the original name. Although works like La Cenerentola , Le comte

Article

Howard Mayer Brown, Ellen Rosand, Reinhard Strohm, Michel Noiray, Roger Parker, Arnold Whittall, Roger Savage and Barry Millington

some or all of their parts. Numerous sub-genres, such as opera seria , opera buffa , tragédie en musique and the like, have grown up in the history of opera (information about these sub-genres will be found in separate entries). Some of the sub-genres mix spoken and sung drama in conventional ways. Thus, in operetta, Singspiel, opéra comique and musical comedy the dialogue is normally spoken and musical numbers interrupt the action from time to time. The history of opera is inextricably intertwined with the history of spoken drama. Moreover, since all operatic

Article

Vincent Duckles, Jann Pasler, Glenn Stanley, Thomas Christensen, Barbara H. Haggh, Robert Balchin, Laurence Libin, Tilman Seebass, Janet K. Page, Lydia Goehr, Bojan Bujic, Eric F. Clarke, Susan McClary, Jean Gribenski, Carolyn Gianturco, Pamela M. Potter, David Fallows, Miloš Velimirović, Gary Tomlinson, Gerard Béhague, Masakata Kanazawa and Peter Platt

Michael Morrow, Andrew Parrott and many others. The performance of 17th- and 18th-century opera, particularly the operas of Monteverdi, Purcell and Handel under Westrup at Oxford University from the 1920s onwards and under Anthony Lewis at Birmingham University in the 1940s to 1960s, was an important venture. Lewis, on the staff of the BBC from 1935 and in charge of music on the Third Programme in the mid-1940s, brought such music to a still wider public. The spirit of all these operatic ventures derived from the work and teaching of Dent, who saw performance as

Article

Philip Gossett

donna del lago . To call it the first opera in which Rossini wrote out the coloratura is a great exaggeration (see above). Although it is the first of his operas in which all recitative is accompanied by strings, Mayr had done this two years earlier in Medea in Corinto , written for the same Neapolitans who, largely under French influence, were demanding the rejection of secco recitative in opera seria . Much of the music of Elisabetta is salvaged from earlier operas, and the new pieces offer little novelty. As Rossini's first opera for Isabella Colbran, whose highly

Article

Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan and Jessie Ann Owens

career opportunities in Rome and elsewhere than in the wider circulation of his music. His dedicatees included virtually all the popes under whom he served, Philip II of Spain, Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria, Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga and Duke Alfonso II d’Este. Venetian publishers did eventually pick up on Palestrina’s music in reprints: his first book of madrigals was reprinted eight times between 1568 and 1600 and his motet books from 1563 onwards all received a good number of Venetian reprints, helping to spread the composer’s fame. A select number of motets and madrigals

Article

Bryan Gilliam and Charles Youmans

were hardly cheerful times. During work on the new opera, Die Liebe der Danae ( 1938–40 ), Strauss's daughter-in-law was placed under house arrest in Garmisch, and Strauss appealed to Heinz Tietjen, the Berlin Intendant, who had high political connections, to help ensure her and his grandsons' safety. Danae was scheduled for a 1944 première in Salzburg, but cancelled after a dress rehearsal by an order from Goebbels to close all theatres in preparation for total war. In the meantime Strauss composed his final opera, Capriccio ( 1940–41 ), which had its première

Article

Ian D. Bent and Stephen Blum

that a singer (e.g. in opera) or instrumentalist (e.g. concerto soloist) has in readiness to perform, the scores that a conductor has in readiness to conduct, or the operas or ballets that a director or choreographer is in a position to realize; ( c ) more loosely, the sum total of works, roles or parts that an artist has in readiness for performance throughout his or her career (not all of which are necessarily available for performance at any given time). (2) All the items that are available for performance in a given locality (e.g. all the folksongs known to the

Article

Lionel Salter, Humphrey Burton, Jennifer Barnes and David Burnand

featured opera in its schedules. In 1936 Stephen Thomas, Dallas Bower and Desmond Davis were engaged as directors for opera on television. Together with Hyam Greenbaum, the conductor of the BBC Television Orchestra, and members of the British Music Drama Opera Company, they formed a group that presented 29 operas until broadcasting was suspended in 1939 . The relationship between music, drama and television was one planned in aspiration and conditioned by existing technology. The initial repertory was ambitious. In 1937 the BBC presented 14 operas, all in English

Article

Malcolm Boyd

music by Filippo Amadei, Giovanni Bononcini and Handel, though it seems unlikely that this opera was actually designed as a contest. The collaborative opera, like the pasticcio, fell into disfavour after about 1800 ; among the few 19th-century examples is the opera-ballet, Mlada , commissioned in 1872 from Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Like any other collaborative venture, a collective work depends for its completion on the goodwill and reliability of all concerned, and Mlada was not the only such work to remain unperformed. A similar fate befell

Article

John Rosselli

be played; if those works require large forces and corresponding expenditure they may not be performable at all without authority's leave. This, however, is merely to say that for much of history the arts have depended on patrons, and individual works have been specifically produced for them. An example is the insistence of Frederick the Great on having operas composed for his royal theatre exclusively by C.H. Graun: no other composer need try to write operas for Berlin. On a wider scale, church music down to the late 18th century was composed solely for liturgical

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

Quartet in A minor op.132. Stylistic allusions are often used in operas and programme music to invoke a type of music and the people or activities associated with it; examples include the evocations of shepherds’ dances and hunting-calls in Vivaldi's ‘Four Seasons’ and the march, lullaby and tavern piano in Berg's Wozzeck . Allusion can also suggest a place or time through musical style, as in the Spanish rhythms and melodic turns in Bizet's Carmen or the Mozartian music of John Corigliano's opera The Ghosts of Versailles . Allusion is not always melodic or rhythmic;

Article

Nils Grosch

Weill ( Royal Palace , 1927 ) took as their subjects modern social and cultural issues and used a wide variety of styles from both opera and light music, as well as music reproduced by radio or gramophone on stage, thus making it clear that this music was available to all. Other composers of such works in the late 1920s include Hindemith, Schoenberg, Ernst Toch, Max Brand and George Antheil. This new aesthetic approach also attracted opera composers to commercial music theatre, notably Weill ( Dreigroschenoper , 1928 ; Happy End , 1929 ), while technical development

Article

Radio  

Siegfried Goslich, Rita H. Mead, Timothy Roberts and Joanna C. Lee

earliest advances in radio; as early as 1881 a performance at the Paris Opéra was transmitted by telephone to listeners at an exhibition. In 1910 a commission studied the possibilities of radio, and in 1915 the first French–American radio link was made, from the top of the Eiffel Tower. Development was halted by World War I, but after 1918 private stations developed and in 1923 there were regular broadcasts, also from the Eiffel Tower. In the same year the government reaffirmed control over all broadcasting, but licences were issued to private stations, some of

Article

Chapel  

Adele Poindexter and Barbara H. Haggh

activities of a court, including opera and orchestral concerts, all of which were generally served by the same orchestra. The Dresden Hofkapelle, founded in 1548 by Moritz of Saxony, is an example of this development. It was at first a group of 11 singers, but as the court became increasingly secularized it expanded to include an orchestra and an opera; it continues in all these capacities as the Dresden Staatskapelle. The musical repertories of chapels always included sacred music for the Mass, Office, votive services and the Mass for the Dead, as well as occasional

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

in order to evoke similar associations; for example, in his music for the Star Wars films, John Williams used as models Holst's The Planets (the most prominent orchestral depiction of space) and Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen , whose system of leitmotifs linking four separate operas Williams imitated to suggest an epic on a similar scale spread over a series of films. Bibliography H. Bloom : The Anxiety of Influence: a Theory of Poetry (Oxford, 1973) C. Abbate : ‘ Tristan in the Composition of Pelléas ’, 19CM , 5 (1981–2),

Article

Philip Brett and Elizabeth Wood

November 1996 , pp.108–14), Peter Rauhofer said: ‘It's all about the diva effect, an attitude that gay people immediately identify with’. This statement has a certain appeal as a generalization across 20th-century homosexual cultures in the West, including both gay males and lesbians. Among affluent males the diva effect tends to produce a devotion to sopranos (Joan Sutherland or Maria Callas, most notably, the latter being central to Terrence McNally's play The Lisbon Traviata ) and a subject position known as the Opera Queen, widely discussed and theorized (Bronski,

Article

Fred Everett Maus, Glenn Stanley, Katharine Ellis, Leanne Langley, Nigel Scaife, Marcello Conati, Marco Capra, Stuart Campbell, Mark N. Grant and Edward Rothstein

scholarship rather than critical judgments. Rossini's success, the establishment of an operatic repertory, and the construction of opera houses in both large and small cities formed the basis for the rapid growth of opera consumption (which an acute observer, Carlo Cattaneo, termed the ‘industrialization of opera’). The same factors gave rise to the creation of the first periodicals devoted to opera in Bologna, Venice and Naples. Almost all were short-lived expressions of a journalistic specialization which had not yet been consolidated. Peter Lichtenthal, who believed

Article

Ruth Tatlow and Paul Griffiths

used serialism highly systematically, do not appear to have recourse to numbers in any but the most traditional ways (such as rhythmic augmentation and diminution). Schoenberg was undoubtedly no stranger to numerology – he changed the name ‘Aaron’ to ‘Aron’ so that the title of his opera would have 12 and not 13 letters – but there is no evidence that he used numbers in the substance of his music. With Berg, though, there is abundant proof, and not only in his serial works. Indeed, a pre-serial composition, his Kammerkonzert , is one of the most conspicuously numb

Article

Judith Tick, Margaret Ericson and Ellen Koskoff

orchestra or appear on the podium of an opera house. The career of Nadia Boulanger in the first half of the 20th century, and that of Iona Brown in the second half, contain many such moments. Leading figures in the 20th century made more prominent careers in the choral world, among them Alice Parker, Margaret Hillis and Jane Glover, and in opera Eve Queler and Sarah Caldwell. What paths will be taken by Anne Harrigan, Simone Young, Sian Edwards, Marin Alsop and Gisele Ben-Dor in the current generation, remains to be seen. Among all areas of professional music-making,

Article

Jeffrey Kallberg

Work’, PNM , 32/1 (1994), 28–43 J. Hepokoski : ‘Masculine-Feminine’, MT , 135 (1994), 494–9 S. McClary : ‘Of Patriarchs … and Matriarchs, too’, MT , 135 (1994), 364–9 T. McGeary : ‘Gendering Opera: Italian Opera as the Feminine Other in Britain, 1700–42’, JMR , 14 (1994), 17–34 C.E. Blackmer and P.J. Smith , eds.: En Travesti: Women, Gender, Subversion, Opera (New York, 1995) M. Head : ‘“Like Beauty Spots on the Face of a Man”: Gender in 18th-Century North-German Discourse on Genre’, JM , 13 (1995), 143–67 L. Kramer : ‘The Lied as Cultural Practice: