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Manfred Boetzkes, Evan Baker and Nicholas John

itself became an instrument of state. Up to the latter part of the 19th century, the Opéra was granted by the government a large budget to create and achieve grand scenic effects particularly for the operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy. The results, with their subsequent popularity, served to propagate the glory and stability of the French state. The production style of French grand opera achieved international dissemination; its influence on stage design was to be found above all where opera was a vehicle for political ideas: in pre- 1848 Germany (Wagner’s Rienzi ), Italy



Richard Macnutt

numbered, it may not have been until somewhat later (the 1830s at the latest) that specific seats outside the boxes could be reserved. At the Opéra the benches in the stalls were not numbered until 1831 , and a slightly higher price was thereafter paid for tickets purchased in advance than for those bought on the night – a convention that applied to many of the major Parisian theatres, certainly in the 1850s. At Her Majesty’s all seats except those in the stalls were numbered by the mid-1840s, while at Covent Garden numbering began probably in 1858 . In addition to


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet and Thomas Bauman

and celebrated Louis XIV’s marriage. Collasse and M.-A. Charpentier were among the composers of Jesuit stage works. Occasionally from 1684 onwards, true operas (with coherent plots) were performed, still following the intermède pattern of intercalation. Thus, Charpentier’s David et Jonathas ( 1688 ) was given with Chamillart’s Latin tragedy Saül . Later, Campra contributed to numerous Jesuit works, but all the music appears to be lost. Indeed the French tradition was lost with the suppression of Jesuit colleges and their expulsion from the kingdom ( 1761–2 )


Stephen Walsh

concerts, which introduced new music from the West (Strauss, Elgar, Debussy, Mahler) and were by far the best played. Stravinsky would also sometimes go to the Mariinsky with his teacher, but only ever to opera (Rimsky-Korsakov and his entire circle despised ballet). Rimsky-Korsakov himself was writing mainly operas at the time, and his own premières were red-letter days for all his pupils. Stravinsky went to Pan Voyevoda (in the Conservatory) in October 1904 , and The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh , another score on which he himself had worked, at the Mariinsky