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Article

Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan and Jessie Ann Owens

career opportunities in Rome and elsewhere than in the wider circulation of his music. His dedicatees included virtually all the popes under whom he served, Philip II of Spain, Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria, Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga and Duke Alfonso II d’Este. Venetian publishers did eventually pick up on Palestrina’s music in reprints: his first book of madrigals was reprinted eight times between 1568 and 1600 and his motet books from 1563 onwards all received a good number of Venetian reprints, helping to spread the composer’s fame. A select number of motets and madrigals

Article

Tonary  

Michel Huglo

Lipphardt) and the tonary of Regino of Prüm ( GerbertS , i, 231 a ) include some examples of responsories for each tone. It is more difficult to understand the inclusion of graduals, alleluias and offertories of the Mass in the earliest of all tonaries, the late 8th-century tonary of St Riquier (ed. Huglo, 1971 , pp.26–8). Not all the chants in the Gregorian repertory imply a dominant–final relationship (these elaborate non-antiphonal chants are used, in any event, only as illustrations of the division of the repertory into eight tones). Individual chants are not assigned

Article

John Caldwell and Joseph Dyer

(in its Latin version) ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … qui iustus es’ and the song of the Young Men, divided into two sections (iii.52–6 and 57–90), beginning ‘Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum … et benedictum nomen’ and ‘Benedicite omnia opera’ respectively. The latter calls upon all creation to bless the Lord, an exhortation answered by the refrain ‘laudate et superexaltate eum in saecula’ (‘praise and exalt him forever’). For Western liturgical use ‘laudate’ was replaced by ‘hymnum dicite’. By the last quarter of the 4th century the Benedicite

Article

Robin A. Leaver

: Albertine Saxony in the south encompassed the ducal residence in Dresden and the university of Leipzig (founded 1409 ); Ernestine Saxony in the north was without a court of the stature of Dresden and had no university at all. Thus, Friedrich addressed both deficiencies. In 1502 he founded Wittenberg University, and his court chapel of All Saints effectively doubled as the university church. Modelled on the university of Tübingen, the new university was centred on theology, philosophy, law, medicine and the arts. Its professors, who generally favoured the new learning

Article

William J. Summers

masses. A great deal of devotional polyphony with Spanish texts is also extant, much of it for two, three and four voices in a simple homophonic style with some or all voices moving in parallel 3rds. This music, which often presents translations of such well-known prayers as Pater noster and Salve regina , was used during processions, recitation of the doctrina or the Rosary, and Benediction. In all, more than 200 individual polyphonic works with sacred texts survive from California and testify to the richness and diversity of the musical culture of the mission

Article

Mass  

James W. McKinnon, Theodor Göllner, Maricarmen Gómez, Lewis Lockwood, Andrew Kirkman, Denis Arnold and John Harper

turning to the more profitable opera; and they then often travelled abroad, spreading their style throughout Europe. Although the source of the style was thus homogenous, the resulting music is extremely varied, the more so since Neapolitan-trained composers flourished throughout the century and followed the period's main developments. There is, therefore, no ‘Neapolitan’ mass or even ‘cantata mass’ style, but rather a general attitude that infected the whole century. Virtually all composers studied the stile antico , though not all wrote complete masses in it. Alessandro

Article

could boast. They followed the sovereign from one place to another, singing in the royal chapels at Whitehall, Greenwich, Richmond, Hampton Court and Windsor. For convenience, the choral music sung at all these endowed foundations is generally known as ‘cathedral music’, and this usage will be followed here. 4. English cathedral music, 1549–1645. All parts of the new liturgy, including the daily psalms, could be spoken where no musicians were to be found. They could also be intoned or chanted in much the same way as the Latin rite, the priest being

Article

Jesuits  

T. Frank Kennedy

sources. Much documentation exists about the music of the Jesuits before the order’s suppression by Pope Clement XIV in 1773 , but very little of the music itself seems to have survived. Apart from the Kapsberger opera, the other collections of music manuscripts linked to the Society have come to light mostly outside the European orbit, and virtually all of that music is connected with the Jesuit mission lands. The most substantial manuscript collection is that of the episcopal archive in Concepción, Bolivia, but music associated with the Society has also been found

Article

Michel Huglo

into a number of categories. The majority are of small portable format and serve for all the processions of the liturgical year. They generally begin with the Sundays and festivals of the Proper of the Time, including those of the Christmas cycle, followed by the festivals of the Proper of the Saints (generally beginning with 24 June – St John the Baptist), and they generally conclude with the chants for various processions to pray for rain, fine weather, etc. Many, though not all, processionals include after the chants for Palm Sunday the Maundy antiphons, those

Article

Ruth Steiner and Keith Falconer

saint’s life), as are the lessons of Matins. Freely composed texts are found in hymns, in occasional antiphons and responsories, and in the relatively late category of the Versified Office . Bibliography Primary sources J.-M. Hanssens , ed.: Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia (Vatican City, 1948–50) R.-J. Hesbert , ed.: Corpus antiphonalium offici , 1–4 (Rome, 1963–70) La prière des églises de rite byzantin , iii: Dimanche: Office selon les huit tons – Oktoechos (Chevetogne, 1968) J. Wilkinson , ed.: Egeria’s Travels (London,

Article

James W. McKinnon

after Prime, and eventually yet another in honour of the Blessed Virgin. Before Matins were sung the 15 ‘gradual psalms’; after Prime the seven penitential psalms and the litany; and after all the Hours psalmi familiares on behalf of monastic patrons. By the 9th century an Office of the Dead was added, consisting of Matins, Lauds and Vespers; by the late 10th century an Office of All Saints, comprising Lauds and Vespers; and this itself was then replaced by a full Office of the Blessed Virgin. Most of these accretions were confined to ferial days, while the liturgy of

Article

Michel Huglo and David Hiley

editions and inventories of antiphoners Including electronic resources G.M. Tomasi , ed.: Responsorialia et antiphonaria romanae ecclesiae , 1–215 (Rome, 1686); also in A.F. Vezzosi, ed.: G.M. Tomasi: Opera omnia , iv (Rome, 1747–54), 1–170 [from I-Rvat S Pietro B 79] Sancti Gregorii papae I, cognomento magni: opera omnia (Paris, 1705); also in PL , 78, 725–850 [Compiègne antiphoner, F-PN lat.17436] R.-J. Hesbert , ed.: Manuscripti ‘cursus romanus’ , CAO , 1 (1963) [ D-BAs lit.23; F-Pn lat.17436;

Article

Anne Walters Robertson

Cathedral (Cambridge, 1892–7) W.H. Frere , ed.: The Use of Sarum (Cambridge, 1898–1901/ R ) J.A. Jungmann : Missarum sollemnia: eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (Vienna,1948, 5/1962; Eng. trans., 1951–5, abridged 2/1961) J.M. Hanssens , ed.: Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia (Vatican City, 1948–50) M. Bukofzer : ‘Interrelations between Conductus and Clausula’, AnnM , 1 (1953), 65–103 J. Marshall : ‘Hidden Polyphony in a Manuscript from St. Martial de Limoges’, JAMS , 15 (1962), 131–44 K. Hallinger , ed.: Initia consuetudinis B

Article

Joseph Dyer, Kenneth Levy and Dimitri Conomos

Copies of the asmatikon may contain some or all of the following: the cycles of koinōnika (communions); the choral refrains of the prokeimena and great troparia ; the Pasa pnoē in the eight modes; the hypakoai and the kontakia ; some Proper chants for the Dedication; and some Ordinary chants of the Divine Liturgy, including the eisodikon , the three Trisagia ( see Trisagion ), and the Cheroubikon. Fewer than a dozen Greek copies of the asmatikon survive, all dating from the 13th century or the early 14th; all but two are from south Italy. The two Greek

Article

Paul Frederick Cutter, Brad Maiani, Davitt Moroney and John Caldwell

two repertories ( see Old Roman chant ). The following analysis takes into account both versions of Roman chant. Responsories possess two distinct parts, respond and verse. For the latter, each repertory has a set of eight recitation formulae or ‘tones’, one for each mode. All Old Roman and all but a few freely composed, late examples of Gregorian verses, and the doxologies, were sung to these tones ( ex.1 : Gregorian, after AS , 4; Old Roman, from I-Rvat S Pietro B79). Neither melodic tradition is entirely stable; moreover, the Old Roman tones are based on a t

Article

Miloš Velimirović, Ruth Steiner, Keith Falconer and Nicholas Temperley

described by St Benedict as being ‘sicut psallat Romana ecclesia’, and may thus date back in Rome to at least the 5th century. The Rule does not name the individual canticles, but those in use during the Middle Ages are as follows:Sunday: Canticle of the Three Young Men, Benedicite omnia opera ( Daniel iii.57–88, 56)Monday: Canticle of Isaiah, Confitebor tibi, Domine ( Isaiah xii.1–6)Tuesday: Canticle of Hezekiah, Ego dixi ( Isaiah xxxviii.10–20)Wednesday: Canticle of Anna, Exultavit cor meum ( 1 Samuel ii.1–10)Thursday: Canticle of Moses, Cantemus Domino (

Article

Kenneth Levy, John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham, David Hiley and Bennett Mitchell Zon

Aquileia . All these five medieval Italian dialects, but particularly the amply preserved Gregorian, Old Roman and Ambrosian, share some basic musical material. Corresponding chants in the various liturgies are melodically related. Thus in some instances an ‘old-Italian’ chant layer can be discerned behind the stylized regional variants. The recovery of this layer constitutes one of the major challenges in plainchant study. As part of the movement towards political and liturgical unification begun in regions ruled by the Carolingians in the mid-8th century, all the local

Article

associated with opera: aria, cavatina, cabaletta and recitative.) Pius reiterated the prohibition against singing in any language other than Latin at a solemn Mass, banned the participation of women in church choirs and forbade the use of the piano and ‘all noisy and irreverent instruments’ (i.e. percussion). The motu proprio condemned masses ‘made up of separate pieces, each of which forms a complete musical composition’, and laid down specific guidelines for the singing of psalms (chant, falsobordone and more elaborate figured music were all acceptable) at Vespers

Article

José López-Calo

only place where these ancient precursors of the oboe can be heard. Opera was brought to Santiago in the second half of the 18th century by the Italian singer and impresario Antonio Settaro; during the 19th century opera continued to enjoy great popularity, as did the Spanish zarzuela. In the 20th century such interest decayed, but from 1990 musical life gained a new vitality thanks to the construction of a large auditorium, where the best orchestras and soloists are heard, as well as regular opera seasons. Santiago University library contains Fernando I’s mozarabic

Article

John Koegel, William Summers, Margaret Cayward and John Grady

in California, are extremely varied in their appearance and musical contents; nearly all were intended as choirbooks. No printed music other than that found in the musical tutors and chantbooks has survived. Virtually all of the remaining manuscripts must have been produced before the Mexican government edict secularization of 1833 . Plainsong in the choirbooks and fragments is in chant notation. With the exception of Sancho’s personal collection of musical manuscripts, virtually all of the polyphony is notated, however, in an unusual square notation. Two-, three-,