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Article

Trio  

Marita P. McClymonds, Elisabeth Cook and Julian Budden

unusual to find one closing an act or at the end of the opera, although the use early in the 18th century of a coro for all the characters to end the opera tended to displace it. Since intermezzos tended to include only two characters, the appearance of the trio became relatively rare. From the 1730s, however, intermezzos for three or even four characters were composed and some, for example Jommelli’s Don Chichibio ( 1742 ) and Don Trastullo ( 1749 ), included trios (the latter has two). In French opera the trio maintained a continuous presence, as one of the

Article

Hugo Cole

compulsory in all state schools increased the demand for choral works suitable for school use. In the years that followed, the operas of Gilbert and Sullivan – tuneful, witty and free of all moral taint – restored the art to respectability and provided influential models for composers of school operas. By the early 1900s Novello, England’s leading publisher of educational music, were advertising more than 50 school operettas as well as a number of ‘cantatas with action’. Most had spoken dialogue; the longest ran for as much as an hour and a half and almost all advertised

Article

S Giovanni Grisostomo Theatre in Venice, built by the Grimani in 1678 . The largest and most exclusive opera house in the city, it was renamed after Malibran in 1834 , then used for all kinds of popular entertainment; it was restructured in 1919 but soon became a cinema. See Venice, §3 and Venice, §8 .

Article

John Rosselli, Neal Zaslaw, Thomas Bauman, Nigel Burton, Katherine K. Preston and Adrienne Simpson

of the ENO (from London), Opera North (Leeds), the WNO (Cardiff), Scottish Opera (Glasgow) and Glyndebourne Touring Opera. See also Carl Rosa Opera Company ; Carte, Richard D’Oyly ; Denhof Opera Company ; English Opera Group ; Intimate Opera Company ; Kent Opera ; London, §II, 1 ; Moody-Manners Company ; Opera for All ; and Phoenix Opera . 5. The USA. Katherine K. Preston The history of opera performance in the USA during the 19th century is for the most part a history of itinerant opera companies. Except for works mounted by theatrical stock companies

Article

Elisabeth Cook and Stanley Sadie

a style for the developing opéra comique ; for example, Pergolesi’s La serva padrona was adapted to French words by P. Baurans as La servante maîtresse (the recitative becoming spoken dialogue), and Vincenzo Ciampi’s Bertoldo, Bertoldino e Cacasenno was revised as Bertholde à la ville . In England similar methods were used but the heavy prevalence of pasticcio obscures parody as such. In all countries, successful works naturally attracted parody in one form or another: a prime example is Gluck’s Orfeo and his Iphigénie operas, and another is Mozart’s Die

Article

Edward A. Langhans

by David Syrus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, to E. A. Langhans, 26 October 1989 ) is for the prompter, working from a vocal score, to give all cues to all singers (unless they do not want to be prompted). From his box he can see the singers, and through one or more mirrors or, better still, a television monitor, he has a view of the conductor. Depending on the volume of the music, the prompter can speak loudly or softly. Ideally, the audience will be unaware of him, though his voice may be picked up by microphones if the opera is being broadcast or televised

Article

practices with which Metastasio had to contend. Although clearly aware of the foibles of contemporary serious opera and its performance at this the outset of his career, Metastasio was to achieve certain reforms while working from within the genre itself, not as an overt antagonist. His letters reveal lifelong complaints about the mistreatment of his librettos by composers, singers and theatre directors. There appear to be six settings of L’impresario delle Canarie , all written between 1724 and 1744 , the most popular being Leo’s ( 1741 ). As this was one of four written

Article

Manfred Boetzkes, Evan Baker and Nicholas John

itself became an instrument of state. Up to the latter part of the 19th century, the Opéra was granted by the government a large budget to create and achieve grand scenic effects particularly for the operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy. The results, with their subsequent popularity, served to propagate the glory and stability of the French state. The production style of French grand opera achieved international dissemination; its influence on stage design was to be found above all where opera was a vehicle for political ideas: in pre- 1848 Germany (Wagner’s Rienzi ), Italy

Article

Ticket  

Richard Macnutt

numbered, it may not have been until somewhat later (the 1830s at the latest) that specific seats outside the boxes could be reserved. At the Opéra the benches in the stalls were not numbered until 1831 , and a slightly higher price was thereafter paid for tickets purchased in advance than for those bought on the night – a convention that applied to many of the major Parisian theatres, certainly in the 1850s. At Her Majesty’s all seats except those in the stalls were numbered by the mid-1840s, while at Covent Garden numbering began probably in 1858 . In addition to

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet and Thomas Bauman

and celebrated Louis XIV’s marriage. Collasse and M.-A. Charpentier were among the composers of Jesuit stage works. Occasionally from 1684 onwards, true operas (with coherent plots) were performed, still following the intermède pattern of intercalation. Thus, Charpentier’s David et Jonathas ( 1688 ) was given with Chamillart’s Latin tragedy Saül . Later, Campra contributed to numerous Jesuit works, but all the music appears to be lost. Indeed the French tradition was lost with the suppression of Jesuit colleges and their expulsion from the kingdom ( 1761–2 )

Article

Andrew Lamb

three collections of romances, some drawing-room operettas published during the 1870s (apparently written for private performance) and, above all, by the unassuming Les noces de Jeannette , among the most delightful of one-act opéras comiques and his only work to retain its popularity. Works ( selective list ) Stage first performed in Paris unless otherwise stated; for full list see GroveO Opera La favorita e la schiava, c 1845 La mule de Pedro, 1863 Paul et Virgine, 1876

Article

Orly Leah Krasner

eschewed, did notably better. At the end of his career, when younger composers eclipsed his reputation, de Koven composed two operas on libretti by Percy MacKaye, The Canterbury Pilgrims and Rip Van Winkle . Having seldom accommodated what he perceived of as a deterioration of musical taste, this autumnal metamorphosis reflects the composer’s search for an audience more closely attuned to his ideal. Works ( selective list ) all stage works, most MSS in US-Wc and WM The Canterbury Pilgrims (4, grand op, P. MacKaye, after G. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

pseudonyms Paul Aubry, Robert Harrington, H.S. Iseledon, Georges Latour and Ch.G. Mustal. His work is discussed in P.L. Scowcroft: British Light Music: a Personal Gallery of Twentieth Century Composers (London, 1997 ). Works ( selective list ) unless otherwise stated, all theatres in London all works published under the name of Clutsam Stage The Queen's Jester (op), 1904 A Summer Night (op, 1, Clutsam), His Majesty's, 23 July 1910 [after story from the Heptameron ] After a Thousand Years (op, 1), Tivoli, 1912 König Harlekin (music masque, 4, R. Lothar), Berlin

Article

David Ades

Roger, Roger ( b Rouen , Aug 5, 1911 ; d France , June 12, 1995 ). French arranger , composer and conductor . The son of Edmond Roger, a well-known Paris opera conductor and friend of Debussy, he was attracted more to popular music and at 18 formed his first small group for a music hall. This encouraged him to develop his arranging skills, although he also showed a flair for composing. During a long career he accompanied almost every French singer, and his ‘Paris Star Time’ radio series was heard worldwide. He once claimed to have made over

Article

Robert Stevenson

creación de una academia de música , designed to stir support for a national academy of music. He also published Petición de subvención para el teatro lírico nacional (Madrid, 1881 ) in support of opera and Dictamen proponiendo la creación de una sección música en las academias provinciales de bellas artes (Madrid, ? 1884 ). Works Stage zarzuelas etc.; all first performed in Madrid; printed works are vocal scores published in Madrid Palo de ciego (1, J. Peral), 15 Feb 1849 (1851) Colegiales y soldados (2, M. Pina and F. Lumbreras), Instituto, 21 March

Article

Deane L. Root

learnt the piano from his mother, and in 1915 became a rehearsal pianist for the Boston Opera. From 1916 he was a song-plugger in Boston for Irving Berlin Music and from 1921 in New York for the F.A. Mills Co., of which he later became a partner. In the 1920s he wrote several popular songs, including When My Sugar Walks Down the Street ( 1924 ), and revues for the Cotton Club in Harlem. In 1928 he began a long association with the lyricist Dorothy Fields; their all-black revue Blackbirds of 1928 included the song ‘I can’t give you anything but love’, which

Article

St Louis, Municipal Opera, 2 June 1969 A Grand Night for Singing (Rodgers), Criterion Center, 17 Nov 1993 State Fair (Rodgers), Music Box, 27 March 1996 [rev. of film] Films those not already mentioned above High, Wide and Handsome (J. Kern), 1937 [incl. The Folks who Live on the Hill] The Great Waltz (J. Strauss jr), 1938 Lady Be Good! (Kern), 1941 [The Last Time I Saw Paris] State Fair (R. Rodgers), 1945, 1962 [incl. It might as well be spring, It’s a grand night for singing, That’s for me] Centennial Summer (Kern), 1946 [incl. All Through the Day]

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

1926 [incl. The Policeman's Serenade (A.P. Herbert), later perf separately] Midnight Follies (revue), 1927 The Fountain of Youth (comic op, 1, W. Graham Robertson), 1931 Derby Day (comic op, 3, Herbert), 1932 1066 and All That (musical comedy, R. Arkell), 1934 The Bookies' Opera (A.J. Talbot) Other ballad ops and short ops, some for radio Incidental music The Toy Cart, 1918 Leatherface, 1922 The Beaux Stratagem, 1927 The Taming of the Shrew, 1927

Article

Ronald Byrnside and Andrew Lamb

revues; words by Cohan; all dates are those of first New York performance The Governor’s Son, Savoy, 25 Feb 1901 Running for Office, 14th Street, 27 April 1903 rev. as The Honeymooners, Aerial Gardens, 3 June 1907 Little Johnny Jones, Liberty, 7 Nov 1904 [incl. Yankee Doodle Boy, Give my regards to Broadway; films, 1923, 1930] Forty-five Minutes from Broadway, New Amsterdam, 1 Jan 1906 [incl. 45 Minutes from Broadway, Mary’s a Grand Old Name, So Long, Mary] George Washington, Jr., Herald Square, 12 Feb 1906 [incl. You’re a Grand Old Flag, All Aboard for Broadway]

Article

remained one of the most performed of all zarzuelas, along with La montería ( 1922 ), El huésped del sevillano ( 1926 ) and La rosa del azafrán ( 1930 ). He later composed music for films and revues; his stage works number about 200 in all. His broad, rich melodies have kept him to the fore among 20th-century zarzuela composers. Guerrero also organized travelling zarzuela companies to perform in Spain and abroad, and he was at one time president of the Sociedad General de Autores de España. Works ( selective list ) all zarzuelas; for more detailed list see