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his first 12-note works (apart from the three songs of op.48) since the opera, and with it the culminating productions of this period of his work. They are cast in the respective three- and four-movement moulds traditional in such works, but the individual movements abandon strict Classical layout. The first-movement recapitulations no longer correspond to the measure of the expositions, but are engulfed in the development, which continues unchecked to the close. The forward urge that marks all Schoenberg’s music asserts itself so forcefully here that a return to s

Article

Richard Taruskin

comparable prestige in opera when a Singspiel (albeit one billed as a Romantische Oper ), Weber’s Der Freischütz ( 1821 ), won wide acceptance, both at home and abroad, as the exemplary German opera, a mirror of the nation and an answer to the eternal question, ‘Was ist deutsch?’. Peasants, until now visible on the operatic stage only as accessories (and, as always, representing their class, not their country), formed virtually the entire cast: not just sidekicks and comic relievers but heroes and heroines, villains and all the rest. Weber’s opera gained its great national

Article

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

little old woman’, but recorded that she sang well. Oxberry wrote of her in 1825 : ‘As a singer, we never heard her equal; she had all the requisites for a first-rate vocalist – compass, power, feeling, taste, flexibility, and sweetness’. (2) James Bland ( b London , March 5, 1798 ; d London , July 17, 1861 ). Bass-baritone and actor , son of (1) Maria Theresa Bland. He sang in the company of the English Opera House at the Lyceum ( 1826–30 ) and then, after a brief period acting minor roles at Drury Lane, achieved fame in J.R. Planché's burlesque

Article

Choctaw  

Victoria Lindsay Levine

“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.” The composer george Quincy , who trained and later taught at the Juilliard School, has written music for chamber ensembles, ballet, film, and television. His opera Pocahontas at the Court of James I ( 2006 ) was commissioned by the Queen’s Chamber Band. In 2010 Arizona Opera commissioned him to write Young Woman Warrior who Came Home , an opera based on Navajo history. Selected recordings American Indian Music of the Mississippi Choctaws , i–ii (Choctaw Central High School, 1974); Choctaw-Chickasaw Dance Songs

Article

Israel  

Jehoash Hirshberg, Natan Shahar, Edwin Seroussi and Amnon Shiloah

invented folksong, with new art music limited to a handful of works, notably the first Hebrew folk opera, The Pioneers ( 1924 ) by Jacob Weinberg ( 1870–1958 ). The dominating spirit of socialism spearheaded by the idealistic kibbutz (communal village) movement and the idealization of agricultural pioneer work were the backdrop for the Institute for the Promotion of Music among the People, which sponsored lectures, workers' choruses and courses for choral conductors all over the country. The economic depression of the late 1920s and the deterioration of Arab-Jewish

Article

A. Dean Palmer

Wohlbrück – to write an opera based on one of Scott’s novels. They chose Ivanhoe . By eliminating non-essential characters and simplifying the plot, Wohlbrück developed the libretto from J. R. Lenz’s play Das Gericht der Templer (Breslau, 7 May 1824 ), which Lenz had based on one or more of several English plays, particularly W. T. Moncrieff’s Ivanhoe! or, The Jewess (London, 24 January 1820 ), that were performed in England after the publication of Scott’s book. Universally considered during the 19th century as Marschner’s most popular opera, Der Templer und die

Article

Irén Kertész Wilkinson

çingene ’, ‘ cigány ’ or ‘gypsy’. Spanish Gypsies refer to themselves as Gitan (‘Gypsy’). Others opt for a different name all together. In German speaking areas, the ‘Gypsy’ group who suffered most during the Holocaust stress this through their name, Sinti. In Finland they call themselves Kale. Within the broad categories of Roma, Sinti or Gitan, there are further subdivisions according to type and level of descent, language use and religion, all of which serve as a framework for Roma social structure. Many Roma groups are divided according to their previous or present

Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland and Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography

Article

Winton Dean

[ ‘ Francesina ’ ] ( d 1773 ). French soprano . Trained in Italy, she sang in several operas at Florence in 1731 and 1734–5 . In 1736 she was engaged by the Opera of the Nobility for London, making her King’s Theatre début in Hasse’s Siroe , and singing in operas by Broschi, Pescetti, Veracini and Duni. The following season ( 1737–8 ) she appeared in operas by Pescetti and Veracini, the Handel pasticcio Alessandro Severo and Handel’s new operas Faramondo (Clotilde) and Serse (Romilda). From then she was known almost exclusively as a Handel

Article

Winton Dean

Galli, Caterina ( b ? Cremona , c 1723 ; d Chelsea , Dec 23, 1804 ). Italian mezzo-soprano . After singing in Bergamo in 1742 , she was engaged for the 1742–3 Italian opera season in London, appearing at the King’s Theatre in Brivio’s Mandane , Galuppi’s Enrico and Sirbace and Porpora’s Temistocle (she took male parts in all four operas). In 1745 she was in a pasticcio, L’incostanza delusa , at the New Haymarket Theatre, but she made her name in Handel’s Covent Garden oratorio seasons from 1747 to 1754 . She appeared first in revivals

Article

Hugh Macdonald

oratorio!’, he said, ‘no, let’s make it an opera!’, and he began to dig through the Bible while I outlined the plan of the work, even sketching scenes, and leaving him only the versification to do. For some reason I began the music with Act 2, and I played it at home to a select audience who could make nothing of it at all. Despite many precedents, most people expressed alarm at a biblical subject on the stage. After one more hearing of Act 2 Saint-Saëns abandoned his opera. Only after the appearance in 1872 of his third opera, La princesse jaune , did he feel sufficiently

Article

Encore  

Peter Walls

their crying out encore or altro volto , the performer is so obliging as to sing it over again’. In this period, the word had a fashionable status. Pope ( 1742 ) has the ‘harlot form’ of Opera telling Dullness (‘in quaint Recitativo’): To the same notes thy sons shall hum or snore And all thy growing daughters cry encore . ( The Dunciad , iv. 59). In both concerts and operas the progress of a work was freely interrupted for the repetition of arias or movements. Today, an ‘encore’ usually means an extra piece played at the end of a solo or chamber recital, or by

Article

Jürgen Maehder and Antonio Rostagno

Pompei , written in collaboration with Giordano on a posthumous libretto by Illica ( 1921 , Rome), which Giordano described as a ‘satirodia’, to the pre-Fascist opera Glauco ( 1922 , Naples), containing some ingredients typical of later propaganda operas on subjects connected with the glory of ancient Rome. Works Operas first performed at Milan, La Scala, unless otherwise stated; all printed works published in Milan Asrael (leggenda, 4, F. Fontana), Reggio nell’Emilia, Municipale, 11 Feb 1888 (1888) Cristoforo Colombo

Article

James Freeman

composer-in-residence for the Delaware Valley Opera Company. Among his commissions are works for the Fromm Foundation, the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and Orchestra 2001 . Finko’s Russian-Jewish heritage is an important aspect of his music, often providing the subject matter (especially for his operas and tone poems) as well as motivating the thematic content. Musorgsky and Shostakovich, the music of the Russian Orthodox Church and Jewish folksong and synagogue music are all clear influences on his style. He has been

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

Jerusalem, with its division into culturally self-contained ethnic, national and religious quarters, and the all-Jewish, middle-class extrovert Tel-Aviv soon became conspicuous and is still acknowledged. With the foundation of Israel in 1948 Jaffa was integrated with Tel-Aviv and thenceforth the city grew, connecting with adjacent towns to form the country's largest metropolitan area. Also in 1948 the soprano Addis de Philippe founded the Israeli Opera, which lasted until 1982 . The Palestine Orchestra, renamed the Israel PO, moved in 1957 to its permanent home

Article

Hans Åstrand

influenced by Hebrew cantillation. Den judiska sången ( 1944 ) is a central work, and the orchestral Rapsodia ebraica , written in protest at the massacres under the Nazis and parodying Deutschland über alles , is another Jewish-inspired piece. Pergament's major works also include the ballet Krelantems och Eldeling , composed for the Ballets Suédois, the chamber opera Himlens hemlighet , choral works, songs, various orchestral pieces and chamber compositions of many kinds. Works ( selective list ) Stage Krelantems och Eldeling (ballet), 1920–21

Article

arrangements into operas as separate numbers – the operas of the 1930s were, in their first versions, essentially conversational dramas with aria-songs and instrumental dance episodes – and then (from about 1940 ) to the harmonic enriching of folk melodies and their organic development into large-scale sonata-symphonic forms. The experiment of introducing a kyui into the symphony proved particularly successful; apart from the Third, the Sixth, on a theme by the folk musician Kurmangaza, is notable in this respect. Works ( selective list ) all first performed in

Article

Wilhelm Pfannkuch

Reviser Gerhard J. Winkler

an monarchy in the last third of the 19th century. His next opera, Merlin ( 1886 ), to a libretto by Mahler’s mentor Siegfried Lipiner, was also a great success. After this Goldmark composed the fairy tale opera Das Heimchen am Herd (after Dickens’s The Cricket on the Hearth ); it owes a debt to Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel and looks back to the comic operas of Lortzing. Its music employs a deliberate simplicity (one of the choruses even quotes the beginning of a German folksong). His next opera, Die Kriegsgefangene ( 1899 ), probably prompted by Bungert’s

Article

Nelli Grigor′yevna Shakhnazarova

employed for the first time in the Trombone Concerto, and, interpreted freely, they gave added expressivity to Frid's tragic voice. The high point of Frid's art are the two opera monologues – Dnevnik Annï Frank (‘The Diary of Anne Frank’) ( 1969 ) and Pis′ma Van Goga (‘The Letters of Van Gogh’) ( 1975 ) – which are both distinctive for their documentary style and chamber proportions. Both operas and the song cycle Federiko Garsiya Lorka (‘Federico García Lorca’) strikingly present the composer's preoccupations with tragedy and the ability to retain one's faith in

Article

Robert Henderson and Thomas S. Hansen

librettos. During the 23 years of his collaboration with Richard Strauss, Hofmannsthal not only restored the words in opera to their former position of creative equality with the music, but wrote librettos which number among the few that can be read with pleasure as literature. Hofmannsthal was born into a cultured Viennese family of mixed Austrian, Italian, Swabian and Jewish origins. He inherited a naturally cosmopolitan spirit and an instinctive sympathy with all that was best in the arts. A boy of precocious literary gifts and of abnormally sensitive intelligence, by the