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Harold Rosenthal

Opera for All A small company formed in 1949 by the Arts Council of Great Britain to take opera to small towns and villages throughout the country which otherwise would have no opportunity of seeing live opera. It gave its first performance in September 1949 at Blaenau-Ffestiniog; initially the group consisted of four soloists, a pianist and a compère who also acted as stage manager. In its first season it visited 69 different centres, each for one night only. By 1952 it had expanded enough to give a modest stage performance of Così fan tutte

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Howard Mayer Brown, Ellen Rosand, Reinhard Strohm, Michel Noiray, Roger Parker, Arnold Whittall, Roger Savage and Barry Millington

and their connection with opera in particular. There was a vast amount of dramatic music heard in Italy in the 16th century, and a large literature of debate and discussion about it. All this activity contributed to musicians’ ideas of what an appropriate music for the theatre should be. The crucial change from courtly entertainment to opera came about when a kind of music appropriate for dramatic dialogue was invented, by Caccini, Cavalieri, Vincenzo Galilei or Peri (all of them claimed credit). The overall shape of the earliest operas, Dafne and the two Euridice

Article

Philip Gossett

moments of artistic inspiration, all these seemed to be totally lacking. The general view of Rossini the composer was equally mistaken. Rossini's historical position was distorted by the prominence of his great comic operas, which are among the last and finest representatives of buffo style. His ties with the 18th century were consequently emphasized, while his position in the 19th was misunderstood. Superb as the buffo operas are, Rossini is historically more important as a composer of opera seria . He threw off 18th-century formulae and codified new conventions

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Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac and Joanna C. Lee

research. The main stimulus for this work was the vast project Zhongguo minzu minjian yinyue jicheng (Anthology of Folk Music of the Chinese Peoples), a series including volumes for every province on opera, narrative singing, folksong, instrumental music and dance. Largely based on fieldwork in the early 1980s, volumes began to appear in the late 1980s. For all its flaws, the series, consisting largely of transcriptions into cipher notation, with brief documentation of history and social background of genres, is an indispensable starting-point for fieldwork. Also useful

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included three orchestrally accompanied anthems and the Te Deum in A, all based to some extent on works written for Cannons. An exceptional opportunity for ceremonial church music arose after the unexpected death of George I in June 1727 . For the coronation of his successor George II and his consort Queen Caroline at Westminster Abbey on 11 October Handel provided four new anthems of great splendour, showing how much he welcomed the chance to use the massed forces not available to him in the opera house. They included Zadok the Priest , which has been sung at every

Article

Bryan Gilliam and Charles Youmans

Goethe's West-östlicher Divan . All these, with their coloratura, reflect his experience as an opera composer, experience even more evident in the Drei Hymnen ( 1921 ) of Hölderlin for voice and orchestra. Strauss occasionally orchestrated his piano lieder, generally writing arrangements for specific performances. In 1897 four songs were orchestrated for a concert with his wife in Brussels; a few years later three more were arranged for a performance in Berlin. Other singers (such as Elisabeth Schumann) inspired him to orchestrate; for her he arranged five songs in

Article

Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

the ta dhi tom nam succession by means of secondary ‘flowing’ formulae combined with repetition and recurrence of the four main strokes are given in the 14th-century Saṅgītopaniṣat-sāroddhāra (Sudhākalaśa). Very interesting historically is the association of each variant with a tāla, as though for a ṭhekā of Hindustani music. Although they are mostly not absolutely identical with existing traditional patterns, some of these patterns are very close, and all are playable. The first quoted below is for Ādī tāla: ‘tad dhi thau draim’. Others are ‘tat-taki/tat-ta

Article

Douglas Johnson, Scott G. Burnham, William Drabkin, Joseph Kerman and Alan Tyson

such as the first (private) performance of the ‘Eroica’, this was not a happy summer for Beethoven, and for a time he may have thought of leaving Vienna altogether – perhaps for Paris. But towards the end of the year his contract for the opera was renewed, and he set to work on it again. Apart from the opera there was another reason for Beethoven to remain in Vienna. In January 1804 Count Deym, the husband of Josephine von Brunsvik, had died; the young widow, who now had four small children, continued to spend much of her time in Vienna, and by the autumn Beethoven

Article

Tim Carter and Geoffrey Chew

as an apologia for the ‘perfections of modern music’, one of the key documents for an understanding of the seconda pratica , which may be exemplified above all in these works (see Ossi, I1992). Monteverdi’s next opera, Arianna ( 1608 ), seems to have outshone Orfeo in the eyes of his contemporaries: indeed there was one confirmed revival of it. It is now lost except for the libretto, by Rinuccini, and for the setting (surviving in multiple versions) of Arianna’s lament, ‘Lasciatemi morire’ sv 107, a work which itself supplied models for imitatio to numerous

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here: the summer wind will assuredly soon sweep all before it. What will be left? Schoenberg gave his answer in the Second Quartet, one of the most personal of all his works. This quartet consists of four thematically related movements which successively reflect the transformation of his style, but do not further it. The third movement is later but less advanced than the op.14 songs, and the finale, though tonal only in parts, stands in the same relation to the earlier songs of Das Buch der hängenden Gärten . The reason for this lies not only in the technical consideration