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Article

Harold Rosenthal

, accompanied by a piano. By the 1966–7 season there were three Opera for All groups, each comprising 12 members; one was based at the London Opera Centre, one at Scottish Opera and one at the WNO. The increased touring commitments of the last two companies, and expanded touring by the English Opera Group and Phoenix Opera, resulted in the two regional groups being absorbed into the larger Scottish and Welsh companies as small touring ensembles with chamber orchestra. The London-based group retained the original name. Although works like La Cenerentola , Le comte

Article

Howard Mayer Brown, Ellen Rosand, Reinhard Strohm, Michel Noiray, Roger Parker, Arnold Whittall, Roger Savage and Barry Millington

some or all of their parts. Numerous sub-genres, such as opera seria , opera buffa , tragédie en musique and the like, have grown up in the history of opera (information about these sub-genres will be found in separate entries). Some of the sub-genres mix spoken and sung drama in conventional ways. Thus, in operetta, Singspiel, opéra comique and musical comedy the dialogue is normally spoken and musical numbers interrupt the action from time to time. The history of opera is inextricably intertwined with the history of spoken drama. Moreover, since all operatic

Article

Philip Gossett

donna del lago . To call it the first opera in which Rossini wrote out the coloratura is a great exaggeration (see above). Although it is the first of his operas in which all recitative is accompanied by strings, Mayr had done this two years earlier in Medea in Corinto , written for the same Neapolitans who, largely under French influence, were demanding the rejection of secco recitative in opera seria . Much of the music of Elisabetta is salvaged from earlier operas, and the new pieces offer little novelty. As Rossini's first opera for Isabella Colbran, whose highly

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Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac and Joanna C. Lee

was originally accompanied by a date-wood clapper. All clapper opera styles use string instruments, especially a two-string bowed fiddle ( see Huqin ). Like the Yiyang qiang , their librettos are based mainly on colloquial language. Major examples of this system are the operas of Shaanxi ( Qinqiang ) and Shanxi ( Jinju ). The fourth main system is pihuang , a combination of erhuang and xipi , modes with their different affects. The main example of this system is Beijing opera ; another is Cantonese opera ( Yueju ), with its mellifluous and slightly sensuous

Article

attempted to revive the flagging fortunes of his opera company. Christopher Smith reported to Lord Shaftesbury that Handel had promised Middlesex two new operas for 1000 guineas, but had then said ‘that he could – or would do nothing for the Opera Directors, altho’ the Prince of Wales desired him several times to accept of their offers, and compose for them, and said that by doing so he would only oblige the King and all the Royal Family but likewise all the Quality’. Instead Handel immersed himself in setting an English opera libretto – Congreve’s Semele – for concert

Article

Bryan Gilliam and Charles Youmans

were hardly cheerful times. During work on the new opera, Die Liebe der Danae ( 1938–40 ), Strauss's daughter-in-law was placed under house arrest in Garmisch, and Strauss appealed to Heinz Tietjen, the Berlin Intendant, who had high political connections, to help ensure her and his grandsons' safety. Danae was scheduled for a 1944 première in Salzburg, but cancelled after a dress rehearsal by an order from Goebbels to close all theatres in preparation for total war. In the meantime Strauss composed his final opera, Capriccio ( 1940–41 ), which had its première

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his first 12-note works (apart from the three songs of op.48) since the opera, and with it the culminating productions of this period of his work. They are cast in the respective three- and four-movement moulds traditional in such works, but the individual movements abandon strict Classical layout. The first-movement recapitulations no longer correspond to the measure of the expositions, but are engulfed in the development, which continues unchecked to the close. The forward urge that marks all Schoenberg’s music asserts itself so forcefully here that a return to s

Article

Tim Carter and Geoffrey Chew

enters for the first time and the opening words are taken up polyphonically by all five voices, the phrase of text is at last completed and the music reaches its tonal goal, providing a strong emotional release of tension. The fifth book, then, may resemble some of the theatre music in various genres, notably ballets, intermedi , operas and incidental music to plays, that Monteverdi was required to compose during his Mantuan employment. It is, however, not altogether like the operas Orfeo ( 1607 , published in full score) and Arianna ( 1608 ) that were also

Article

Nancy B. Reich

work became known to the musical world. Almost without exception, Clara played at the première of each work he wrote for or with piano; and almost all his orchestral works were introduced in concerts in which she was the solo artist. In 1878 Clara Schumann became principal teacher of piano at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, but did not relinquish her performing career. Her presence attracted students from all over the world and especially from England, where she was an immensely popular performer. She made her last public appearance as a pianist in 1891

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Sion (1846), one of Mendelssohn's few settings of a Catholic text, and the majestic a cappella Three Motets op.69 (1847). 12. Operas and other dramatic music. Like Schumann, Mendelssohn did not produce a successful opera, though he was by no means inexperienced or unskilled in dramatic composition. Between the ages of 11 and 15, he finished four ambitious dramatic works, three in one act and one in three acts. All were performed privately in the Mendelssohn Berlin residence. The librettos were written by Johann Ludwig Casper, a physician who had studied

Article

Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan and Jessie Ann Owens

career opportunities in Rome and elsewhere than in the wider circulation of his music. His dedicatees included virtually all the popes under whom he served, Philip II of Spain, Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria, Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga and Duke Alfonso II d’Este. Venetian publishers did eventually pick up on Palestrina’s music in reprints: his first book of madrigals was reprinted eight times between 1568 and 1600 and his motet books from 1563 onwards all received a good number of Venetian reprints, helping to spread the composer’s fame. A select number of motets and madrigals

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Vincent Duckles, Jann Pasler, Glenn Stanley, Thomas Christensen, Barbara H. Haggh, Robert Balchin, Laurence Libin, Tilman Seebass, Janet K. Page, Lydia Goehr, Bojan Bujic, Eric F. Clarke, Susan McClary, Jean Gribenski, Carolyn Gianturco, Pamela M. Potter, David Fallows, Miloš Velimirović, Gary Tomlinson, Gerard Béhague, Masakata Kanazawa and Peter Platt

Michael Morrow, Andrew Parrott and many others. The performance of 17th- and 18th-century opera, particularly the operas of Monteverdi, Purcell and Handel under Westrup at Oxford University from the 1920s onwards and under Anthony Lewis at Birmingham University in the 1940s to 1960s, was an important venture. Lewis, on the staff of the BBC from 1935 and in charge of music on the Third Programme in the mid-1940s, brought such music to a still wider public. The spirit of all these operatic ventures derived from the work and teaching of Dent, who saw performance as

Article

Kornel Michałowski and Jim Samson

life of the capital, not only by the Opéra, naturally, but also by the ‘swarm’ of pianists who were launching the new season of concerts just as Chopin arrived. He even considered a course of lessons with one of the most famous of them, Frédéric Kalkbrenner. It was partly through Kaklbrenner’s offices that Chopin arranged his first Parisian concert, which took place in the Salle Pleyel on 26 February 1832 ( fig.1 ), and included the E minor Concerto. A supportive and perceptive review by Fétis clearly did Chopin no harm at all. Nor did his growing acceptance by other

Article

Patrick Macey, Jeremy Noble, Jeffrey Dean and Gustave Reese

style was felt farther north, above all by Willaert. Works N.B.: Entries in italics are cross-references to works listed elsewhere in the work-list Editions: Werken van Josquin des Près , ed. A. Smijers and others (Amsterdam, 1921–69): Missen [Mis. deel: aflevering, no.] (separate mass sections are numbered as Fragmenta missarum [Fm no.]); Motetten [Mot. deel: aflevering, no.]; Wereldlijke werken [WW deel: aflevering, no.]; Supplement [Suppl.: 55, no.] Josquin des Prez: Opera omnia, editio altera , ed. A. Smijers

Article

Steven Zohn

Gänsemarktoper, where he performed his own operas as well as those by Handel and Keiser, for which he often provided additional material. He found the opera to be in good financial circumstances at first, but declining attendance in the 1720s and 30s forced it to close in 1738 ; as early as 1732 he wrote to his friend J.F.A. von Uffenbach that the opera had few spectators and that all expenses were paid by one or two patrons. 1. Georg Philipp Telemann: engraving by Georg Lichtensteger Telemann’s direction of the opera and collegium musicum met with strong

Article

Giuseppe Gerbino

(Padova, 1989), 239–267 G. Predota : ‘Towards a Reconsideration of the Romanesca: Francesca Caccini’s Primo libro delle musiche and Contemporary Monodic Settings in the First Quarter of the Seventeenth Century’, Recercare , 5 (1993), 87–113 J.W. Hill : Roman Monody, Cantata, and Opera from the Circles around Cardinal Montalto (Oxford, 1997), 203–34 See also Favorita

Article

Gregory Sandow

patterns: Chord Catalogue ( 1986 ) for keyboard consists of all 8178 chords possible within an octave; Formulas for string quartet ( 1994 ) is based on mathematical formulas. He also continued to write operas (his catalogue includes ten), of which the most successful has been Riemannoper ( 1988 ), a comedy in German with a text consisting of musical definitions from the Riemann Musik-Lexicon . Productions of this work and The Four Note Opera have made Johnson one of the most performed of contemporary opera composers, though he is rarely acknowledged as such. One

Article

Licht  

Richard Toop

Licht ( ‘Light’ ) The collective title of a projected cycle of seven operas by Karlheinz Stockhausen , each of which is named after a day of the week. The cycle was conceived in 1977 and completed in 2003 . Up to 2007 , only the first five operas have been staged, though semi-staged performances have been given of all individual parts of the two final operas: Mittwoch aus Licht (‘Wednesday’), 1995–7 , and Sonntag aus Licht (‘Sunday’), 1999–2003 . Performances of the complete cycle are planned (but unconfirmed) for Essen in 2010 . Licht ,

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Opera 80 Opera company, founded by the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1980 ; it succeeded Opera for All . One of the most active touring companies in the country, Opera 80 has undertaken two national tours each year, visiting 25 theatres over a period of 18 weeks. All productions are in English and are fully staged with an orchestra of 30 players. Independent performances have been given at Sadler’s Wells, Bath Festival and in France. In addition, the company works in a wide range of settings, including schools and hospices. Repertory has included

Article

Julian Budden

of a serious opera each normally ended with a bravura aria for a main character, sometimes a pathetic one or a duet; the last act generally ended with a ‘coro’ sung by all the principals. Comic operas rarely had more than three acts (an exception is Le nozze di Figaro , 1786 , with four), and towards the end of the century their third acts became progressively shorter; eventually a two-act structure came to be preferred (this applies too, in a lesser degree, to serious opera). From soon after the middle of the century it was traditional in comic opera to end Act 1