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Article

Robert Strizich and James Tyler

Rasgueado [ golpeado] (Sp.; It. battuto ; Fr. batterie ) Term used to describe the technique of strumming the strings of the guitar in a downward or upward direction with the thumb, or other fingers of the right hand. The term rasgueado was used most commonly from the late 19th century, while, historically, the Italian term battuto or the Spanish golpeado was used in the 17th and 18th centuries. Strumming has been an important component of guitar playing from at least the 16th century, when Juan Bermudo ( Declaración de instrumentos musicales , Osuna, 1555

Article

Battuto  

Battuto [ battute] (It. ) Term used in the 17th and 18th centuries to describe the technique of strumming the strings of the guitar. See Rasgueado .

Article

James Tyler

pizzicato ) The modern term for the technique of plucking the strings of a guitar with the fingertips or nails of the right hand. Historically, the manner of playing derives from lute technique, and was used by baroque guitarists in conjunction with strumming technique ( see Rasgueado ). The Italian term pizzicato was the one used most widely in the Baroque era, since Italian guitarists were the main developers of the technique and repertory for the instrument in that period ( see Guitar, §4 ). Punteado is the term most commonly used from the late 19th

Article

Monica Hall

four folios of an undated manuscript ( E-Mn 5917) copied by D. Macario Fariñas del Corral. The first two folios are incomplete and the treatise contains no music. The text is divided into ten rules, several of which refer to a table of guitar chords now lost. It employs Castilian rasgueado notation, in which the chords are represented by the numbers 1–9, the sign ‘+’ and the letter P, the same system as that used by Briçeño and Ruiz de Ribayaz. The ninth rule explains the signs and symbols of mensural notation and the tenth includes four sketches of the guitar, showing

Article

Elaine L. Bearer

wedding of Francesco de’ Medici and Bianca Cappello in 1579 and another at the wedding of Ferdinando de’ Medici and Christine of Lorraine in 1589 . The guitar tablatures of the early 17th century reduce Janequin's original music to the standard chord-strumming technique of the rasgueado style of guitar playing of the period, but, unusually, adding one melodic note.

Article

Barton Hudson and Monica Hall

suggests that it was intended to introduce into France the Spanish manner of playing the five-course guitar in the rasgueado style of strummed chords. It includes popular Spanish dances ( españoleta , villano , chacona, zarabanda, hachas ), some with Spanish verses, indicating that they were intended to be sung. There are also several romances. Vocal parts are not supplied for the texted works. The earliest known source of music using Castillian rasgueado notation, the chords are represented by the numbers 1 to 9, the sign + and the letter P. Briçeño added five more

Article

Robert Strizich and Richard Pinnell

achieved a new standard of precision, revealing actual practices for the first time; and he advocated a popular style using full strums with the right hand. Sanseverino's opp.1 and 2 have not survived. Bibliography WolfH ii S. Murphy : ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ , 21 (1968), 24–32 T. Walker : ‘Ciaccona and Passacaglia: Remarks on their Origin and Early History’, JAMS , 21 (1968), 300–20, esp. 309 W. Kirkendale : L'Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972), 23, 43, 59, 65, 75 R. Hudson : ‘The Music

Article

Joan Parets i Serra

variation sets of various types. Most are passacalles , but there are also other typically Spanish dances ( jácaras , marizápalos , españoletas , folías etc.). Guerau’s style is characterized by its sobriety and by the use of punteado (plucked) technique rather than the more common rasgueado (strummed). He specified no particular tuning for his pieces; according to Strizich ( Grove6 ), the music suggests A/a–d/d′–g/g–b/b–e′ , as prescribed by Ruiz de Ribayaz. The Poema is comparable in importance to the works of Gaspar Sanz and Ruiz de Ribayaz for Spanish guitar

Article

Gary R. Boye

secondo il vero originale (Rome, 1661) Vero e facil modo d'imparare a sonare et accordare da se medesimo la chitarra spagnuola (Rome and Macerata, 1637), with L. Monte Bibliography S. Murphy : ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ , 21 (1968), 24–32 W. Kirkendale : L'Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il Ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972), 24, 26–7, 42, 53, 66, 75–8 R. Hudson : Passacaglio and Ciaccona: from Guitar Music to Italian Keyboard Variations in the 17th Century (Ann Arbor, 1981)

Article

Robert Strizich and Richard Pinnell

its pieces are based on dance forms, such as the folía, canario , and españoleta , typical of the late 17th-century Spanish Baroque style. The first book includes a detailed introductory tutor with instructions for stringing, fretting, and tuning and an explanation of both the rasgueado (strummed) and punteado (plucked) styles; it also contains a long essay on figured bass accompaniment for the guitar. While many of its pieces are intended for beginners, those in the second and third books are longer, broader in scope, and more technically demanding. Sanz’s