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Article

Robert Strizich and James Tyler

Rasgueado [ golpeado] (Sp.; It. battuto ; Fr. batterie ) Term used to describe the technique of strumming the strings of the guitar in a downward or upward direction with the thumb, or other fingers of the right hand. The term rasgueado was used most commonly from the late 19th century, while, historically, the Italian term battuto or the Spanish golpeado was used in the 17th and 18th centuries. Strumming has been an important component of guitar playing from at least the 16th century, when Juan Bermudo ( Declaración de instrumentos musicales , Osuna, 1555

Article

Battuto  

Battuto [ battute] (It. ) Term used in the 17th and 18th centuries to describe the technique of strumming the strings of the guitar. See Rasgueado .

Article

James Tyler

pizzicato ) The modern term for the technique of plucking the strings of a guitar with the fingertips or nails of the right hand. Historically, the manner of playing derives from lute technique, and was used by baroque guitarists in conjunction with strumming technique ( see Rasgueado ). The Italian term pizzicato was the one used most widely in the Baroque era, since Italian guitarists were the main developers of the technique and repertory for the instrument in that period ( see Guitar, §4 ). Punteado is the term most commonly used from the late 19th

Article

Elaine L. Bearer

wedding of Francesco de’ Medici and Bianca Cappello in 1579 and another at the wedding of Ferdinando de’ Medici and Christine of Lorraine in 1589 . The guitar tablatures of the early 17th century reduce Janequin's original music to the standard chord-strumming technique of the rasgueado style of guitar playing of the period, but, unusually, adding one melodic note.

Article

Monica Hall

four folios of an undated manuscript ( E-Mn 5917) copied by D. Macario Fariñas del Corral. The first two folios are incomplete and the treatise contains no music. The text is divided into ten rules, several of which refer to a table of guitar chords now lost. It employs Castilian rasgueado notation, in which the chords are represented by the numbers 1–9, the sign ‘+’ and the letter P, the same system as that used by Briçeño and Ruiz de Ribayaz. The ninth rule explains the signs and symbols of mensural notation and the tenth includes four sketches of the guitar, showing

Article

Barton Hudson and Monica Hall

suggests that it was intended to introduce into France the Spanish manner of playing the five-course guitar in the rasgueado style of strummed chords. It includes popular Spanish dances ( españoleta , villano , chacona, zarabanda, hachas ), some with Spanish verses, indicating that they were intended to be sung. There are also several romances. Vocal parts are not supplied for the texted works. The earliest known source of music using Castillian rasgueado notation, the chords are represented by the numbers 1 to 9, the sign + and the letter P. Briçeño added five more

Article

Robert Strizich and Richard Pinnell

achieved a new standard of precision, revealing actual practices for the first time; and he advocated a popular style using full strums with the right hand. Sanseverino's opp.1 and 2 have not survived. Bibliography WolfH ii S. Murphy : ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ , 21 (1968), 24–32 T. Walker : ‘Ciaccona and Passacaglia: Remarks on their Origin and Early History’, JAMS , 21 (1968), 300–20, esp. 309 W. Kirkendale : L'Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972), 23, 43, 59, 65, 75 R. Hudson : ‘The Music

Article

Joan Parets i Serra

variation sets of various types. Most are passacalles , but there are also other typically Spanish dances ( jácaras , marizápalos , españoletas , folías etc.). Guerau’s style is characterized by its sobriety and by the use of punteado (plucked) technique rather than the more common rasgueado (strummed). He specified no particular tuning for his pieces; according to Strizich ( Grove6 ), the music suggests A/a–d/d′–g/g–b/b–e′ , as prescribed by Ruiz de Ribayaz. The Poema is comparable in importance to the works of Gaspar Sanz and Ruiz de Ribayaz for Spanish guitar

Article

Gary R. Boye

secondo il vero originale (Rome, 1661) Vero e facil modo d'imparare a sonare et accordare da se medesimo la chitarra spagnuola (Rome and Macerata, 1637), with L. Monte Bibliography S. Murphy : ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ , 21 (1968), 24–32 W. Kirkendale : L'Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il Ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972), 24, 26–7, 42, 53, 66, 75–8 R. Hudson : Passacaglio and Ciaccona: from Guitar Music to Italian Keyboard Variations in the 17th Century (Ann Arbor, 1981)

Article

Robert Strizich and Richard Pinnell

its pieces are based on dance forms, such as the folía, canario , and españoleta , typical of the late 17th-century Spanish Baroque style. The first book includes a detailed introductory tutor with instructions for stringing, fretting, and tuning and an explanation of both the rasgueado (strummed) and punteado (plucked) styles; it also contains a long essay on figured bass accompaniment for the guitar. While many of its pieces are intended for beginners, those in the second and third books are longer, broader in scope, and more technically demanding. Sanz’s

Article

Thomas Walker and Tim Carter

1609 he held the same post at Ancona Cathedral. By 1611 he was living in Naples, and it is likely, though not certain, that he was maestro at Lecce in 1619 . He is remembered chiefly for having devised (according to his claim) a simple alphabet notation of chords for use in Rasgueado playing of the five-course guitar, probably based on a similar system already in use in Spain ( see Guitar, §4 ; Tablature, §4 . This notation was widely popular in Italy through much of the 17th century and was used for song accompaniments as well as for solo playing. The Nuova

Article

Gary R. Boye

1640) [contents as Li 5 libri] Dell’armonia del mondo, lettione due (Paris, 1647) Inventione di toccate sopra la chitarra spagnuola (Venice, 1649) Bibliography WolfH , ii S. Murphy : ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ , 21 (1968), 24–32, esp. 26, 30 W. Kirkendale : L’Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il Ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972) [incl. portrait], 11, 22, 26, 38, 65, 77 P. Danner : ‘Giovanni Paolo Foscarini and his “Nuova Inventione”’, JLSA , 7 (1974), 4–18 R. Hudson

Article

Gerard Béhague, E. Thomas Stanford and Arturo Chamorro

particularly in 19th-century ensembles, was seldom used in theatres and large churches after about 1720 in Latin America, apparently becoming an exclusively rural instrument. Instruments of the guitar family in these ensebles are normally played in the strumming style known as Rasgueado . Song texts are always in couplets, usually octosyllabic. Involving neither pathos nor sentimentality, they almost always deal, directly or indirectly, with women and love; the stereotyped woman is often called María (a Spanish saying has it that toda mujer es Maria : ‘all woman

Article

Israel J. Katz

still highly respected in some circles, vocal quality being one of the most distinctive features of flamenco. The guitar, tuned in 4ths, plays a dual role as solo and accompanying instrument, but is chiefly used as a rhythmic instrument, providing three basic types of accompaniment: rasgueado (strumming), paseo (spritely melodic passage work) and falsetas or rosas (improvised melodic phrases between the sung strophes, including a prelude). Cuadro flamenco performances usually end with the fin de fiesta , a combination of songs and dances, which creates exciting

Article

Guitar  

Thomas F. Heck, Harvey Turnbull, Paul Sparks, James Tyler, Tony Bacon, Oleg V. Timofeyev and Gerhard Kubik

exclusively strummed music could be used with any tuning because questions of proper chord inversions and harmonic niceties were rarely touched upon in this repertory. For much of the mixed style of guitar music, which used Punteado (It. pizzicato) technique, some strummed chords (Sp. Rasgueado ; It. Battuto , battente ), and frequent campanela passages (found in the most important Italian and French sources), a re-entrant tuning, usually with a bourdon on the fourth course, was suitable. Occasional sources such as Francisco Guerau’s Poema harmónico (Madrid, 1694

Article

Thurston Dart

Reviser John Morehen and Richard Rastall

(alfabeto), 1606–1752. An important innovation was introduced by Girolamo Montesardo in his Nuova inventione d’intavolatura (Florence, 1606 ) – although the system is used in at least one earlier source ( I-Rvat Chigi L.VI.200, from 1599 ). It was a new shorthand notation for rasgueado playing, sweeping the hand back and forth over all the strings at once, as distinct from punteado playing, in which the strings were plucked individually according to the lute technique. In Montesardo’s system each left-hand finger position for the 27 most usual chords was denoted

Article

Malcolm MacDonald

represented string glissandos of the late ‘astrological’ works. Even these innovative and forward-looking scores do not deny their composer's national roots. Spanish idioms and points of reference recur with almost surreal effect: a folktune in the Nonet, flamenco allusions and rasgueado guitar strummings in Concert for 8 , Fallaesque fanfare in the Symphony no.4 and, in the coda of that work, a long and deeply nostalgic oboe duet alluding to the Catalan song of a condemned man, El Cotiló , which had haunted several of Gerhard's tonal scores as a tragic leitmotif

Article

Kenneth Kreitner, Louis Jambou, Desmond Hunter, Stewart A. Carter, Peter Walls, Kah-Ming Ng, David Schulenberg and Clive Brown

for instruments as diverse as keyboard ( ex.23 ) and trumpet ( ex.24 ), a unique type of trillo was applied to the guitar in rasgueado style: the performer makes a rapid series of up- and down-strokes, touching all the strings. According to Foscarini ( c 1630 ; cited in Tyler, A1980, pp.83–4) it was done with a downward stroke with the thumb and then an up-stroke (with the thumb) and similarly with the middle finger. A similar rasgueado ornament is the repicco , which is more complex than the trillo and uses a variety of finger patterns. Like the trillo it

Article

Brazil  

Gerard Béhague

canturião (the main singer) and his segunda (or assistant) who echoes almost simultaneously the improvised words of the canturião . Thus parallel singing in 3rds ( ex.20 ) is a constant feature of the cururu . The instrumental accompaniment, which includes the viola , played rasgueado (strumming), rabecas and reco-recos , stresses dotted rhythms and syncopations. Ex.20  Cururu The cateretê or catira , a dance of probable Indian origin used for conversion purposes by the Jesuits, is another popular religious dance. It is found in the states of

Article

Lute  

Klaus Wachsmann, James W. McKinnon, Robert Anderson, Ian Harwood, Diana Poulton, David van Edwards, Lynda Sayce and Tim Crawford

diapasons. If the thumb is held free, there is no point of reference from which each movement can be judged accurately. In the second decade of the 17th century many new technical devices began to appear. Bataille’s Airs de différents autheurs (iv, 1613 ) used a dot for a quasi-rasgueado device in repeated chords ( ex.1 ) that is described by Mersenne and became extremely common, especially in pieces in sarabande rhythm: the dot at the top of the chord stands for an upward stroke with the first finger, while the dot at the bottom stands for a downward stroke