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Cardine, Eugènelocked

  • Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher,
  • Marie-Noël Colette
  •  and Jean Gribenski

(b Courseulles-sur-Mer, Calvados, April 11, 1905; d Solesmes, Jan 24, 1988). French scholar of plainchant. He studied Gregorian music at Solesmes, which he entered in 1928 and where he took his vows as a Benedictine monk in 1930. From 1952 to 1984 he was professor at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome.

His research was devoted to Gregorian musical semiology. Dom Cardine established in principle the use of ‘neumatic breaks’ (separations between neumes) made by medieval copyists to note rhythmic indications. While aware of its limitations, he used this principle to determine the significance of little known neumes (from the St Gallen and Laon neume tables) and significative letters, and the semiological values of other notations not previously studied, such as that practised in Laon in the 10th century. His classification of ‘breaks’ according to their position in the melodic movement (ascending, descending, high, low) allowed him to demonstrate their rigorous employment at St Gallen in the 10th century. He also discovered that this principle was irregularly respected by copyists after the 11th century and that the modal notations of the 13th century still implicitly referred to it with the final note of a neume being long.


  • ‘Signification de la désagrégation terminale’, Revue grégorienne, 31 (1952), 55–65
  • ‘La corde récitative du 3e ton psalmodique dans l'ancienne tradition sangalienne’, EG, 1 (1954), 47–52
  • ‘L’interprétation traditionnelle du chant grégorien’, Katholische Kirchenmusik II: Vienna 1954, 105–10
  • ‘Neumes et rythme’, Congrès de musique sacrée III: Paris 1957, 264–76; also pubd in EG, iii (1959), 146–54; repr. in Neumes et rythme (Rome, 1965, 2/1968; It. trans., 1970)
  • ‘Théroriciens et théoriciensàpropos de quelques exemples d'élision dans la mélodie grégorienne’, EG, 2 (1957), 27–35
  • ‘Preuves paléographiques du principe des “coupures” dans les neumes’, EG, 4 (1961), 43–54
  • ‘Le chant grégorien est-il mesuré?’, EG, 6 (1963), 7–38; Eng. trans., 1964
  • Graduel neumé (Solesmes, 1966)
  • Semiologia gregoriana (Rome, 1968); Fr. trans. in EG, xi (1970), 1–158
  • ‘Neume’, EG, 10 (1969), 13–28
  • Primo anno di canto gregoriano (Rome, 1970; Fr. trans., 1975; Eng. trans., 1988)
  • ‘A propos des formes possibles d'une figure neumatique le pes subbipunctis dans les premiers manuscrits sangalliens’, Sacerdos et cantus gregoriani magister: Festschrift Ferdinand Haberl, ed. F.A. Stein (Regensburg, 1977), 61–9
  • ‘Vue d'ensemble sur le chant grégorien’, EG, 16 (1977), 173–92; Eng. trans., 1992
  • ‘La notation du chant grégorien aux XVIIe–XIXe s’, AnM, 43 (1988), 9–33
  • ‘Les limites de la sémiologie en chant grégorien’, EG, 23 (1989), 5–10


  • N. Albarosa: ‘La scuola gregoriana di Eugène Cardine’, RIM, 9 (1974), 269–97; xii (1977), 136–52
  • J.B. Göschl, ed.: Ut mens concordet voci: Festschrift Eugène Cardine zum 75. Geburtstag (St Ottilien, 1980) [incl. full list of writings]
  • L. Agustoni: ‘Die gregorianische Semiologie und Eugène Cardine’, Beiträge zur Gregorianik, 1 (1985), 9–22
  • J. Claire: ‘Dom Eugène Cardine (1905–1988)’, EG, 23 (1989), 11–26
  • D. Fournier: Sémio-esthétique du chant grégorien: d'après le ‘Graduel neumé’ de Dom Cardine (Solesmes, 1990)
Etudes grégoriennes
Anuario musical
Rivista italiana di musicologia