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  • Robert L. Marshall
  •  and Robin A. Leaver


The congregational hymn of the German Protestant church service. Typically, it possesses certain formal and stylistic traits appropriate to its lay purposes: simple language, rhymed metrical verse, a strophic musical and textual form and an easily singable melody. Since the Reformation, and particularly during the first 200 years of its existence, the chorale has provided raw material for a variety of compositional forms, including the chorale prelude, chorale motet and chorale cantata (...

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C. von Winterfeld: Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes (Leipzig, 1843-7/R)
F. Blume: Die evangelische Kirchenmusik (Potsdam, 1931-4/R, enlarged 2/1965 as Geschichte der evangelischen Kirchenmusik; Eng. trans., enlarged, 1974, as Protestant Church Music: a History)
Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie
J. Zahn: Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder (Gütersloh, 1889-93/R)
Graduale sacrosanctae romanae ecclesiae (Tournai, 1938)