Kharkiv (Russ. Khar′kov)
- Virko Baley
Ukrainian city. It is the second largest city in Ukraine. It is the historical capital of Sloboda Ukraine, an autonomous region settled in the 17th century with a Cossack tradition of self-government. The Ukrainian Cossacks founded Kharkiv in 1654 when they built a fortified settlement on the plateau between the Kharkiv and Lopan rivers. In the mid-18th century Kharkiv, because of its proximity to the Donets Basin and the trade routes between central Ukraine, Russia, the Caucasus and the Black Sea ports, began to play a major role in the administration of the Russian Empire and quickly became an important industrial, scientific and cultural centre. From ...