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  • Gerhard Kubik,
  • James Blades
  •  and James Holland


Term for a group of idiophones, some of which are plucked (lamellaphones) and some of which are struck (xylophones). In parts of eastern and southern Africa, it may denote either type of instrument. In Latin America, it is mostly used for the calabash-resonated xylophone introduced from Africa, but in 19th-century Brazil it also applied to calabash-resonated lamellaphones of African origin, and in Colombia it is used generically to denote any melodic instruments other than aerophones (see List, ...

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Latin American Music Review
African Music
Journal of the International Folk Music Council